AUTHENTIC EXISTENCE: A STUDY OF THE PRACTICES AUTHENTICATION
This work is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of authenticity. On the first stage of the research was carried out pilot phenomenological study. Through reflective reports of subjects about yourself identified a phenomenon неаутен-тичности and authenticity, and describes the experiences of his experience. At the second stage, the objective was a more detailed and comprehensive study of the discovered phenomenon, its features, manifestations and forms.
Keywords: authenticity; authentic Genesis; the practice of authentication.
One of the Central questions of existential psychology is the problem of authenticity or, more precisely, search of authenticity  and authentic existence . Study of the authenticity of the modern stage of human development is connected with the fact that in постсовремен-era, an boundaries of a person cease to coincide with the boundaries of the ego or any other entity, the body, the consciousness needs), and coincide with the boundaries of responsibility . And, thus, become particularly dynamic in nature. Which implies the necessity of the adoption of the modern type of responsibility (some scientists designate it as «existential responsibility»), as well as modern duties, among which the obligation in social activities rely on itself, and not only the accepted norms, dogmas, meanings and values. This requires not only be himself, as proclaimed in the period of humanization of psychology , but also to find yourself. Contradictions such as time and actualize, i.e. make it possible and beneficial to the study of the problem of search of authenticity.
Authenticity in the post-modern age is not a personal feature of the world or the concept and characteristics of human existence, life, and in the analytical discourse practices themselves . Authenticity is always a creative self-actualization, it determines who and what a person can and even must be, first of all to itself , it is a responsible choice of a man how to think, feel and act in the world. Here you can refer to a famous quote Century Frankl and specify what exactly the authenticity is the path of man to himself, which lies through the world . And then we can say that the practice of authentication is a continuous process of searching, finding and keeping yourself in a constantly changing world.
Thus, the purpose of our empirical research was the study of the problem of search of authenticity, in particular authentication practices.
The study hypothesized that authenticity has gender, personal and communicative specificity.
The theoretic-methodological basis of the study were: General scientific principles of development, presented in the works PS Vygotsky, D. Elkonin,
A.G. Russian education, V.I. Slobodchikov, the systemic principle described in the works of L. Von Bertalanffy, B.F. Lomov, the principle of determinism in the works С.Л. Rubinstein, K. Popper, the principle of the subject in the works of A.V. Брушлинского, K. A. Абульхановой,
Of particular importance for our study was an existential-humanistic direction, in particular, presented in the works of such authors as D. Бьюдженталь, K. Рождерс, R. Mae, M. Measures-lo-Ponty, K. Jaspers, I. Ялом, A. Ленгле, C. muddy.
Theoretically important for our study were the works devoted to study of self-development and self-actualization I. Petrovsky, and Century Frankl, identity E. Erickson and psychology individuality V.S. Merlin. Also some idea academic psychologists Tomsk state University, presented the theory transcommunication V.I. CABRI-the theory and psychological systems V.E. Klochko.
Methodical provision of the work was implemented at two levels of analysis psychological authenticity - номотетическом and идиографическом. Nomo-тетический approach pursued through the use of standardized methods. Ideographic was carried out with the selection of some points of the tests, and analysis of individual cases, in particular in the implementation of the phenomenological and projective content analysis.
The sample was formed randomly and it was made by the students of different faculties of senior courses of the Tomsk state University and the Siberian medical University in the amount of 290 people: 160 girls and 130 males.
The study was conducted for three years and consisted of two stages. At the first stage of special research value for us represented the author's self-description and reflective self-reporting, on the basis of which by means of phenomenological analysis identified a phenomenon неаутентичности (authenticity) and discussed in detail the subjective experiences of its experiences. It was proposed and justified definition of authenticity as a complex multi-level education in the structure of consciousness, which is expressed in the form of confidence/feeling that the person is acting /works/ lives in accordance with the system of internal beliefs, principles, values, beliefs. That makes possible the realization (if this confidence), and the experience of the feeling of self-relevance (correctness, accuracy, relevance, importance, materiality) in certain (or uncertain) spatio - temporal circumstances/situations/conditions of his life, man creates, modifies, or accept. The opposite vector authenticity is неаутентичность (травмирующая, депривирующая, дезорганизующая), which is expressed in the form of the experience or awareness of alienation, subordination and inferiority), разорванности and the fragmentation of the private life, the sense of being «at the wrong time at the wrong place.
It was also revealed that the regulatory function of authenticity in interpersonal communication is manifested in the prolonged impact on the engagement of partners, relations which take deep meaningful, in turn, causes the contents and dynamics of the process of communication.
At the second stage, we used the following methods: Dial psychological wellbeing K. Riff, the modeling Method of communication in the world of personality
V.I. Кабрина, Scale of basic beliefs R. Yanov-Boulemane in adaptation O. Kravtsova, methodology Resilience C. muddy adaptation I.I. Rasskazova, D.A. Leontiev, questionnaire Emotional intelligence N. Hall, the Test of life-meaningful orientations D. A. Leontiev, POPPY-scale adaptation CENTURIES Знакова, 16факторный questionnaire R. Кеттелла, Myth S. Boehm in adaptation OG Лопуховой, Test self-actualization A.V. Лазукина in the adaptation of the NF of Kalina.
For the calculation of statistical indicators used program STATISTICA 6.0, using which data were subjected to the procedure of the correlation analysis, the procedure of factor analysis by principal component with варимакс source data (Varimax Raw), dispersion and regression analysis, also calculated the coefficient of the reliability of differences by the student t-criterion.
At the second stage we modification was made Test self-actualization A. Century Лазукина in the adaptation of the NF of Kalina (САМОАЛ), as a result, we have allocated an additional scale titled, «Installing the authenticity,» which includes 15 items (questions). To check конструктной validity with regard to the selected scale was calculated G-correlation with all scales test САМОАЛ. It was revealed that the «Installing the authenticity of the» correlates with the spontaneity (G = 0,49 when
p = 0.00001), аутосимпатией (G = 0,41 when p= 0.0001), самопониманием (G = 0,38 p = 0,0008), autonomy (G = 0,35 p = 0,036).
On the basis of the selected scale, we divided the respondents into three groups by the degree of severity installation on authenticity. The first group included respondents with higher values (from 72 to 90 points), the second group consisted of average values (from 55 to 70 points) and the third group is formed by respondents with low values (from 38 to 55 points).
Further, on the basis of student t-criterion, we estimated the significance of differences in marked our subgroups. And found that the group with significant installing the authenticity characterised by a high autonomy (M = 66,67), compared with group 2 (M2 = = 54,65) and group 3 (M3 = 44,12). Representatives of this group largely perceive themselves as independent from the opinion of the people around them. They tend to view themselves as the strong personality (M1 = 22,60, M2 = 20,05, M3 = 16,95), has enough freedom of choice to build their lives in accordance with their goals and concepts. They highly appreciate your own ability to influence the outcome of events and the ability to change неустраивающие life circumstances (existing or future).
They view themselves as focused and motivated individuals (M1 = 34,72, M2 = 30,17, M3 = 26,71), which are characterized by the desire to achieve the desired and permanently overcome difficulties on the way to realization of their own purposes. Moreover, they can afford to thinking outside the box (M1 = 10,91, M2 = A 10.04, M3 = 7,43) and risky decisions (M1 = of 18.78, M2 = 15,93, M3 = 10,56). They are sure that they can freely make decisions and implement them. Unlike groups 2 and 3 and they tend to take their own life as a more interesting (M! = 33,33, M2 = 28,81, M3 = 38,22), productive (M! = 28,07, M2 = 24,60, M3 = 23,28) and meaning (M1 = 111,89, M2 = 99,74, M3 = 92,30). They are characterized by more pronounced desire constantly to develop, learn and accept new ideas, as well as the presence of a sense of your own progress (M1 = 67,81, M2 = 63,52, M3 = 57,19). Representatives of this group are more convinced that the events, which they occur, facilitate their development by the experience (both positive and negative), which they gouge out from these events.
They also believe in kindness and decency of people (M! = 64,89, M2 = 61,80, M3 = 54,01). Convinced of the positive attitude of the other to himself, believe that others perceive them as interesting interlocutors. And therefore, are not afraid to openly Express their feelings and opinions. High values on a scale of «self-acceptance» (M1 = 64,02, M2 = 58,73, M3 = 49,80) reflect positive self-esteem themselves and their life in General, awareness and acceptance of not only their positive qualities, but their shortcomings.
A group of low-installing the authenticity characterize higher rates as on the scale of the failure of others» (M! = 14,51, M2 = 16,14, M3 = 20,89), and on the scale of «not himself» (M1 = =11,40, M2 = 14, 48mm, M3 = 17,03). In General dissatisfaction with their own life and its performance is combined with anxiety (M1 = 4,03, M2 = 5,18, M3 = =6,40), shyness in interpersonal interactions and deficit manifestations of social activity (M1 = 7,36, M2 = 6.42 Per M3 = 4,95). The lack of independence in actions and thoughts, and the lack of own principles and rules, the propensity to addiction and focus on the assessments and opinions of others.
This group also shows a high level for Mac-scale (M1 = 68,06, M2 = 70,48, M3 = 78,89). In relation with other they tend more so stay emotionally aloof and apart, focus on the problem, not the interlocutor, to feel distrust and suspicion towards others and unwillingness to open up.
Unlike the first group, they are characterized by solid experience emotional discomfort (M! = 14,20, M2 = 17,89, M3 = 21,43), which can be either in the long fixation on negative experiences, or in the steady aspiration for the care of the problems (эскапизму).
This group is also characterized by high values on a scale of external control (M1 = 18,20, M2 = 21,33,
M3 = 25,43). The conviction of a man is what life is subject to the law of the random distribution of events, and beyond conscious control, accompanied by a sense of helplessness and anxiety.
Analyzing the reliability of the data differences 1-test the t-test in male and female groups, it was concluded that young people are susceptible to the manifestation of authenticity (MIAS = 72,7) and autonomy (MIAS = 61,3) to a greater extent than girls (Мфем = 67,4 and 56.9). According to the data received during research it was found that the respondents are male group characterized by a pronounced installation in defending its own position, on a willingness to adopt non-standard solutions (MIAS = 6,56,
Мфем = 5,39). They demonstrate a willingness to deal with unfamiliar circumstances and people, a manifestation of social courage (MIAS = 7,24, Мфем = 6,59) and dominance (MIAS = 6,99, Мфем = 6,23).
Young people distinguishes independence of mind and behavior. They view themselves, based on their own preferences and standards. Girls also tend to desire for approval and social support. Especially important is a process of interaction and communication. In relationships with other people they are open to change and growth, they are prepared to accept partners as a source of development and movement, and the process of interpersonal communication as an opportunity of self-realization.
Unlike girls men to a greater degree of trust in justice in the world (MIAS = 4,38, Мфем = 3,93) and its котролируемость or ability own actions prevent future trouble (MIAS = 2,40, Мфем = 2,12). Respondents female sample tend to believe that life is «too vague» and it all depends on the will of a case. Men also peculiar to the assessment of one's own life as more meaningful and understandable (MIAS = 3,25, Мфем = 2,31).
Self-esteem of girls inferior young people (MIAS = 80,37, Мфем = 77,50). Young people, unlike girls in a greater degree to believe that people treat them with affection and respect, appreciate them as a person (MIAS = 10,76, Мфем = 7,93).
Representatives of the women's group is also characterised by a high emotional awareness (Мфем = 0,43), while male respondents the sample is much smaller (MIAS = 8,07). For girls experiences of the past is important emotional experience and a source of valuable information about how to proceed in the future and that must change in the future. Along with this, the girls also have a high emotional rigidity (MIAS = 8,06, Мфем = 10,43) and emotional discomfort (MIAS = 15,17, Мфем= 16,97). In other words, long fixation on their own experiences combined with some disorganization in behavior, such as by stress, lack of desire to change неустраивающую life situation.
In addition, respondents of the women's group is characterized by high performance on a scale of empathy. They are distinguished from men developed the ability to be sensitive and attentive to understanding the emotional needs and experiences of other people (MIAS = 8,29, Мфем = 9,84).
Control your emotions, or, more precisely, emotional meekness and emotional stability, typical of young people in a greater degree (MIAS = 4,71, Мфем = 1,26). Moreover, they highlight their ability to affect the emotional state of others (MIAS = 9,48, Мфем = 7,78). In particular, calm, smooth emotional displays conflicts by inner circle.
Young people are focused on the knowledge of complex phenomena in a greater degree than girls. They show interest in complex things and ideas (MIAS = 15,27, Мфем = 13.77 throughout its history). They like to put a difficult task. They are manifestation of persistence in achieving goals.
The data obtained in the course of the study, consistent with the theory of the evolutionary purpose sex . Passivity and caution female determined by the characteristics of the conservative mission, which is imposed on the entire female and which consists in the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation, from past to future. While much activity and mobility of the male sex, their tendency to polygamy, highly aggressive and curiosity, active search and risky behavior - these are the qualities that allow to react to environmental change. It is operational function purposefully makes male floor on the periphery of the distribution, enabling him to obtain preferential environmental information.
On the basis of regression analysis, it was determined that authenticity is connected with the positive aspects of the personality, while неаутен-тичность helps to reduce personal effectiveness and is the failure to recognize own feelings and needs, the weakening of liability and reduction of subjectivity.
In particular, for the group with high installation of authenticity is characterized by the following correlates: authenticity is associated with autonomy (R =0,89), the ability to control themselves (d = 0,55), own lives (g = 0,50), personal growth (R = 0,66), acceptance of self (g = 0,52), the ability to empathize (g = 0,45), respect and acceptance of others (g = 0,56), willingness to risk-taking behaviour (g = 0,54), radical decisions (g = 0,40), developed imagination (g = 0,55). Authenticity is negatively correlated with the reticence (g = - 0,45), faith in the justice of the peace (R = - 0.44)and conservative (g = - 0.61 the).
For groups with невыраженной installation on the authenticity of a typical positive correlates with autonomy (R = 0,75), goals in life (g = 0,46), satisfaction with self-realization (g = 0,42), curiosity (g = 0,60), interest to the complex phenomena (R = 0,61), cruelty (g = 0,70) and emotional discomfort (g = 0,50). Authenticity is negatively correlated with the bill (g = -0,40), the departure from the problems (g = -0,47), luck (g = -0,56), empathy (g = -0,64), the ability to control your own emotions (g= - 0.61 the), the ability to positively influence the relatives (g = -0,48), understand and give emotional support to others (g = -0,64).
In addition, the study covers the following aspects of authentication.
The authenticity of social relations includes: adoption of other, attentive to people, readiness for cooperation, naturalness and openness in the relationship, faith in kindness and decency of people; recognition of the right of others to respect and otherness; building partnerships; ability and willingness to close, friendly, confidential, intimate relationships.
Неаутентичность social relations are manifested through: anxiety and shyness in interpersonal interactions and deficit manifestations of social activity; the lack of interest and avoidance of new friends, contacts, experience, communication, interaction; the experience of fatal loneliness, secrecy, isolation from other people.
Desire (orientation) to obey the opinion of the other, the need for approval and support from the other, obsession and desire to please. Lack of independence the actions and thoughts and lack of own principles and rules. Скептичность and alertness, secrecy and distrust of the people, the propensity to use manipulative techniques in the process of interaction.
Authenticity in respect of itself: self-acceptance and acceptance of their life in General; high autonomy, independence in making decisions and actions; focus on our own principles and beliefs;
the solid experience in the meaningfulness of our own being.
Constantly striving to develop, learn and accept new ideas, change and work. The ability to seize opportunities and build their life on the basis of changes in неустраивающей life situation. The organization of private life in accordance with the goals and concepts of its sense. Life satisfaction and perception of it as interesting and informative.
Confidence in ability to manage events and situation in life in General. Willingness to social boldness and risk.
Неаутентичность for themselves: low self-esteem, lack of confidence and to concentrate on the negative aspects of the self, confidence in his own helplessness, cast of openness, self-perception outside life; inadequate self-control deficit and strong-willed self-regulation.
Inconsistency of the perception of their own lives. Insensitivity to the feelings and desires. Lack of introspection and reflection.
Depreciation own life, confidence in the meaninglessness of existence, dissatisfaction with self-realization. Perception of the world as a dangerous and destructive. Pessimistic concerning the future. Delegation of responsibility to the events, circumstances, situations.
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The article presents the scientific editorship of «Psychology and pedagogy» September 8, 2009