UDC 159.9.07 113

BBK 28.903

S.Y. Tarasova

reflection социдльно-психологичЕСкои disadaptation younger школьникд in physiological indicators

Analyzes the logical linkages between the socio-psychological and physiological indices of adaptation of the children to the learning environment in primary school. The results of a longitudinal study, which held five consecutive measurements of performance anxiety and associated psychophysiological indices of 140 students 2-4 class.

Keywords:

index variation pulsometry, the concentration of cortisol, unusual behavior, mental stress, sociometry index, anxiety, learning activities.

The last ten years the issue of adaptation of children for training the focus of attention of representatives of different scientific disciplines: doctors, psychologists, psychological-

Gee, teachers and others [5, C. 15; 6, C. 1]. According to statistics, 35% of students grows socially conditioned pathology is detected manifestations of anxiety until the neurotic symptoms [16, s 21; 20, C. 463]. Often we deal with more traumatic circumstances which in combination may disturb the harmony of personality development [7, C. 155; 10, C. 258]. Therefore, the problem of adaptation of the child to the school requires a systematic, interdisciplinary approach. The result of this integrated vision of the situation should be: effective monitoring of the health of students in the educational process and the allocation of risk group children of school disadaptation.

As a rule, disadaptation in the Junior school age is the difficulty of the child in the educational activity. However, signs of maladjustment is not so obvious. External token can be, for example, extravagant, unusual behavior, which eventually becomes not so much a symptom, how many actually form of adaptation (of psychological protection) to environmental conditions.

The role of integrative health indicator proven parameters of heart rate variability, that is, the indices variation pulsometry [3, 125 C.; 4, C. 346; 17, C. 6; 19, C. 77]. Change of heart rate - the optimal reaction to any kind of load, be it emotional, cognitive or physical. The increased tension index (ti) shows

the high physiological value of» learning activities [8, p. 197; 9, C. 202]. Other physiological indicator ADAP-

"man is the concentration of cortisol in saliva samples [11, n 3; 12, C. 16].

In addition, the possible options for the development of disadaptation, when the negative changes of body systems already exist, but have not yet registered. Then comes to the aid psychological examination. Psychological testing can identify children at risk for school anxiety and maladaptation [2, C. 15]. A good example of such a tool is a questionnaire school anxiety Phillips.

Was conducted a longitudinal study of Junior students, to identify the patterns of the relationship between socio-psychological and physiological indicators of adaptation of children to the terms of teaching in elementary school.

The goal of the research has identified its priority tasks:

1. On the basis of longitudinal research to determine the psychophysiological indicators, the most sensitive to the condition of disadaptation of schoolchildren.

2. On the basis of correlation analysis to identify the socio-psychological indicators, most associated with physiological indices of mental stress in schoolchildren.

Research methods. For the assessment of mental stress were used psychological and physiological techniques. Psychological methods: questionnaire school anxiety Phillips, manifest anxiety scale for children CMAS, sociometry test in the modification YA Kaplan. Counted individual purely science-oriented perspective indexes: demand - the number of positive elections in the classroom of the child; изоли-

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balance - the number of negative elections; status - the difference between the number of positive and negative elections; satisfaction - the number of mutual positive elections; tension - the number of mutual negative elections; фрустри-balance - number of discarded positive elections; self-centeredness - number of popular negative elections.

In our study measured JN sympatho-adrenalovy tone (SAT). We used a portable device «Vari-pulse» for operational registration and calculation indexes variational пульсо-metry [4, C. 346]. Also, we investigate the concentration of cortisol in saliva samples of students included in the have a longitudinal experiment (school 1). The class leaders are taken assess progress of children on mathematics, Russian language (without the help of teachers ' journal) and unusual behaviors (reason in the student's behavior, and not in his cognitive ability). Teacher assessed successes and unusual behavior of the child on the three-point scale.

In the survey participated 140 younger students (based on 5 repeat studies) 1996 and 1997 birth. In a study of hormonal function participated endocrinologist of the Institute of developmental physiology, RAO.

According to the results of a survey using a questionnaire Phillips shows that in different classes levels of anxiety on different factors. Show the example of the comparative analysis of classes And and In school 2 (Fig. 1).

} The Class In

Fig. 1. Average values of the factors of the questionnaire Phillips for students in classes And and In school 2. X - axis-the sequence numbers factors; axis Y - indicators of the severity of anxiety. The statistical significance of the differences:

* - p < 0.05; ** -p < 0,01; *** -p < 0,001. Above the columns marked the significance level.

On the diagram it is visible, that the differences between classes A and b are statistically significant by a factor of 5 (Fear

the situation knowledge test), by a factor of 1 (General anxiety in school) and by a factor of 8 (Problems and fears in the relationship with the teacher) [1, n 165]. The difference in factor 4 (Fear of expression) and by a factor of 7 (Low physiological stress) approaches significant.

We can reasonably assume: factor 5 is important to assess the level of school anxiety and maladaptation.

To identify children at risk of school anxiety and maladaptation we divided the sample of the four examined classes of two schools namely by a factor of 5 over 40 and less than 40 points. Received class a and In school 2 the structure of levels of anxiety factors are shown with the help of diagrams (Fig. 2, 3). At school

1 yielded similar results.

Fig. 2. Average values of factors for the students in the class And school 2, divided into two groups according to the severity of the factor of 5 (Fear knowledge test): above or below 40 points. X - axis-rooms factors; axis Y - indicators of the severity of anxiety. Statistical significance of differences: * -p < 0.05; ** -p < 0,01; *** - p < 0,001.

Fig. 3. Average values of factors for the students of a class In school 2, divided into two groups according to the severity of the factor of 5 (Fear knowledge test): above or below 40 points. X - axis-rooms factors; axis Y - indicators of the severity of anxiety. Statistical significance of differences: * -p < 0.05; ** -p < 0,01; *** - p < 0,001.

It is interesting that have arisen similar patterns levels of anxiety on facto

frames questionnaire Phillips in all four classes. The most informative for the assessment of the level of school anxiety and maladaptation can be recognized, the following factors questionnaire Phillips: 1 - General anxiety in school, 5 - Fear of the situation in testing and 7 - Low physiological stress.

According to the results of лонгитюда confirmed the information content of the fifth and seventh factors for the selection высокотревожных students (who scored over 40 points on factor) and risk-group children (who scored over 75 points by a factor). By a factor of 5 Fear of the situation test knowledge in risk group is consistently about 35% of students.

In our study found a correlation to the results of psychological tests and the level of concentration of cortisol in saliva. In the classroom And school 1 revealed a low but significant correlation between the concentration of cortisol in saliva and values on a scale of manifest anxiety CMAS. The correlation coefficient Mr. Speer-MENA is equal to 0.46, p < 0.05. In this same class shown a considerable degree of connection almost all factors of the questionnaire Phillips with measurements of the scale of the CMAS. Examples of communication performance anxiety factors questionnaire, the Phillips scale CMAS: g = 0,83, p < 0.01 for the factor 5 (Fear knowledge test) and manifest anxiety scale, g = a 0.59, p < 0.02 for the factor 4 (Fear of expression) and manifest anxiety scale.

In connection with the presence of strong bonds between the two variables psychological methods, we consider it possible to consider the correlation obtained during the examination of the class B school 1. The total number of discrepancies with the key on questionnaire Phillips were connected with the level of concentration of cortisol in saliva samples: correlation coefficient Mr. Spearman is equal to 0.65 p < 0,09.

Thus, the concentration of cortisol in saliva samples of children increases at the actual state of high school anxiety and maladaptation. Maybe this condition is caused by specificity of interpersonal relations in the student's group?

Found significant correlations for the level of concentration of cortisol in saliva and indicators sociometry index Demand (g = 0,68, p < 0.05) and Status (g = of 0.62, p < 0.05) in the classroom And school 1 (coeff. Corr. Mr. Spearman). Indexes the Demand for and the Status shows how the child popular among сверс-

participants, whether they want him to sit at the same Desk, and invite birthdays, friends. In our study, the popular class children at the same time demonstrate a high content of cortisol in saliva. Last, as shown above, increases with increased anxiety and maladaptation. Proved itself as a risk group, which can be described as follows: popular guys in their class and have a high school anxiety.

This result agrees with the data of longitudinal research A.M. Parishioners: the group successful in the team, and the alarming children [13, C. 180-181]. Correlation analysis does not allow to determine the causal relationship, it is difficult to say whether the increased anxiety from the status position in the class. Probably, this relationship is complex and mediated by the progress in the basic subjects - mathematics and Russian language. If after A.M. Parishioners treat anxiety as sustainable emotional-personal education, while in elementary school she is most clearly demonstrated to the obtained estimates for school assignments and teacher thinks about you [14, C. 44]. «High claims create a constant intense desire for success...» [13, C. 180]. This desire becomes emotional stress and in the framework of psychosomatic unity acquires high physiological cost.

When comparing the values with indexes of students with high and low anxiety are similar patterns of communication sociometry and anxiety (an example of a class B school 1 - Fig. 4).

} The F5 > 40

} The F5 < 40

Fig. 4. Value indices for the students of a class B school 1, divided into two groups according to the severity of the factor 5: above or below the value of 40 points. X-axis-index numbers sociometry; axis Y - numeric expression indexes. Above the columns marked the significance level.

0,8

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In children with an indicator of the fifth factor of over 40 points higher Status (index 3 X-axis) in the children's group and less Exclusion (index 2 X-axis). Высокотревожные are more popular in the team. From the literature it is known that in the early grades of «stars» are usually successful in their studies and demonstrate «good» behavior [15, C. 184]. Therefore analyzed the patterns of interaction of parameters on Russian language, mathematics and unusual behavior for низкотревожных and высокотревожных students and received similar structures in three of the four examined classes. Under the structure of the communication progress, behaviour and level of anxiety we understand differences averages for groups of high - and низкотревожных children on indicators of success on mathematics, Russian language and on indicators of unusual behavior. Demonstrate an example of a class B school 1 (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. The effectiveness of training and behavior for the students of a class B school 1, divided into two groups according to the severity of the factor 5: above or below the value of 40 points. X axis: 1 - academic performance in mathematics, 2 - progress on the Russian language, 3 - unusual behavior; axis Y - averaged evaluating the success of training and unusual behavior. Above the columns marked the significance level.

Высокотревожные children learn and less demonstrate unusual behavior. And although the difference between high and низкотревожных school groups are not significant, visible similar patterns of communication performance-conduct and levels of anxiety. According to Я.Л. Коломинского in the juniors authority of the teacher hi [15, n 180]. In our study, the value of the student teacher is confirmed by interviews with cool heads-

Directors and representatives of administration of educational institutions. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that students have a primary school anxiety connected with the obtained assessment of knowledge.

In our work is an attempt to correlate the level of neuropsychic tension children with the effectiveness of their training and unusual behaviour. We take into account social factors of increased mental stress. Communication high Isolation and unusual behavior stably exist in four of the five surveyed classes (table. 1).

Isolation or «rejection» in a student's group is characterized by a disregard by classmates. Methods of monitoring and diagnostic interview shows that the student is emotionally experiences their relationships with peers [15, C. 161]. This situation leads to the formation inadequate, unstable self-esteem, which finds expression in stylish, unusual behavior of the child [14, n 105, 159]. With the problem of rejection of a social group (class) specialists tie the manifestations of the behavioral component of school difficulties (PCS) at alarming children [17, C. 1]. Moreover, the behavioral component PCS defined as the systematic demonstration of unusual behavior of the child in the school environment.

In each of the five classes can be observed isolated in a team of students whose teacher steadily notes unusual behaviour. Throughout the education in elementary school, these children constitute about 4% of all students surveyed. It is these students consistently observed extremes JOHN SAT (table. 2). Note that the normative value of the index variation pulsometry can be considered as the indicator of $ 200 [4, C. 347].

Table 1

The results of correlation analysis of the index sociometry Isolation and indicators of unusual behavior in the dynamics of

Examination in the process of learning & e of The шциенты correlation r-Spearman

Class A school class 1 Class B school class 1 Class And school 2 school Class B-2 Class In school 2

The third year of study 0,39* 0,59** 0,53** 0,53** 0,45**

The fourth year of study 0,59** 0,54** 0,54** 0,58** n.s.

Srvc. designation: p^. - not significant value; symbols marked the significance level: * - p < 0.05; ** - p < 0,01.

Table 2

The average index of variation pulsometry and heartbeat for a strongly isolated in the social group of children

Student Pulse Index variation bullets-сометрии Sociometry index Isolation (0-1) Assessment of behaviour (1-3)

1 107 727 0,68 C

2 105 479 0,78 C

C 98 З08 Of 0.46* C

4 100 400 0,43 2

5 90 2З2 0,89 C

*in this class, the highest value of the index Isolation - 0,46.

Note that strongly isolated in the classroom students (table. 2) at the time of admission to the school were under the supervision of doctors (information taken from the school of medical cards) in connection with a diagnosis of astheno-neurotic reaction». (Except in the case of 3, when was диагносциро-van atopic dermatitis). Such medical certificates prove

on the availability of features of mental health, which are, in turn, risk factor for the development of psychosomatic symptoms [8, p. 195].

We collected psychological history, materials testing and data of participant observation feature allows you to describe the disciples: «rogue» in its class (from words of the class teachers), often behave inadequately situation (for example, loudly sing during a lesson, are not included in the game peers. I.e., we see a pronounced manifestations of the behavioral component PIECES. But on the results of diagnostics with the help of a questionnaire Phillips «Les Miserables» нетревожны. So eccentric, unusual behavior is associated with a character peculiarities of children or with family issues [18, S. 38-40]. You can draw a parallel with the data of longitudinal research A.M. Parishioners: 3-4% of Junior schoolchildren

«inadequately calm» - psychological questionnaires open, conscious anxiety does not reveal [14, C. 87]. However, hiding anxiety from others and of itself, the child develops a powerful, but primitive, rough methods of protection. In the literature, this phenomenon is described in the terminology: «suppressed», «deny» or «unconscious» anxiety [14, C. 96].

Thus, in our study of JOHN SAT steadily sensitive to maladaptation isolated in a social group (class) of children with pronounced behavioral component PIECES.

So make some conclusions.

1. In an empirical study, confirmation of the communication manifestations of anxiety with the adaptation of children to schooling, with the physiological and psychological indicators observed in their behavior, their training activities.

2. In Junior school children identified risk groups on the formation of a sustainable school anxiety and maladaptation. Defined informative for evaluation of school anxiety and disadaptation of pupils at primary level factors questionnaire Phillips improve the validity and reliability of the Patriotic sample:

1 - General anxiety in school, 5 - Fear of the situation knowledge test, 7 - Low physiological stress.

3. The most informative method for evaluation of school anxiety and disadaptation in younger schoolchildren is a factor questionnaire Phillips 5 - Fear of the situation of testing knowledge. According to this factor in the group at risk - children whose anxiety registered more than 75 points - stable part about 35% of pupils.

4. Among нетревожных on the results of diagnostics on questionnaire Phillips is allocated a small number of students, which A.M. Parishioners are classified as «inadequately peaceful»than the isolation of the classroom and expressed unusual behavior. During the diagnostics of cardiac activity (heart rate, and their variability) of these children consistently differed high index of variation pulsometry, testifying to the neuro-mental overstrain. These same children, according to medical conclusions, have the features of mental health, which are a risk factor for the development of psychosomatic symptoms.

5. The level of concentration of cortisol in saliva samples is a physiological measure of mental stress in younger schoolchildren risk groups on the formation of school anxiety. An interconnection level of concentration of cortisol in saliva and values on a scale of manifest anxiety CMAS (g = 0,46). In this same class is indicated by a significant degree of connection parameters practically on all the factors of the questionnaire Phillips values manifest anxiety scale CMAS (d = 0,55 up to g = 0,83), and at risk-children who through fear of checking the knowledge recorded more than 75 points - stable part about 35% of pupils.

6. The content of cortisol in saliva samples of children associated with indicators

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popularity student in the social group of the main subjects and прилеж-

(class). Found the relationship between behaviour.

the concentration of cortisol in saliva and knowledge - 8. Isolated position (неприя-

values close in meaning социометриче Thillay) child in the class steadily associated with

economic indexes of the Demand for and the Status of his expressed unusual behavior.

(g = 0,68 vs g = 0,62). The value of the index sociometry Isolated

7. Manifestations of high school validity steadily positively linked to

anxiety and disadaptation is associated with, but with an indicator of unusual behavior

one of the most prestigious position in apprenticeship child (R = 0.39 to g = 0.59 in different

team: difference of average values of classes and g = 0.54 to g = 0.59 in different

for высокотревожных and низкотревожных classes with the re-examination).

children most statistically significant 9. Composed composition psycho-

the social and metric indexes Status of logical and physiological techniques

(p = 0.006) and Isolation (p = 0.008). important for risk assessment

In addition, the manifestation of school tre increased anxiety and maladaptation

вожности associated with good успеваемос - Junior student.

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