I. P. Volkova, N. N. Queen

THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL BASES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION OF INVALIDS ON SIGHT

The article examines the current theoretical approaches to the study of problems of social rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids on sight. The shown data is the empirical study aimed at identifying the main problems and personal resources, socio-psychological adaptation of visually impaired persons of different ages and with varying degrees of visual impairments (blind and visually impaired) and their current socio-psychological support (with the developed complex psychodiagnostic methods and methods of the multidimensional statistical analysis). Presents the organizational model of the activity of the service of socio-psychological support (allowing to implement integrative approach and have the greatest potential in terms of socio-psychological rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids on sight) with separation of the main activities of services on optimization of the process of their social rehabilitation, adaptation and integration in society.

Modern society is characterized by the increasing tendency to humanize, to search for optimal ways of social integration of the disabled, to ensure their equal rights and equal opportunities in the society, the availability of social, cultural and information environment. In the field of тифлология, practical psychology and psychotherapy, Hu-

the activities of the societies of blind extensive theoretical and practical materials on problems of rehabilitation of invalids on sight, is significant in scope and content of the work aimed at optimizing the process of socio-psychological adaptation of persons with severe visual impairments (with E. D. Ageev; I. P. Volkova,;

B. N. Gudonis,; B. Z. Kantor; A. G. Lit-VAC; L. N. Shilkin, V. I. Cheranev; I. M. Yazvina and others).

The problem of social adaptation of personality, in which discusses the effects of deep vision disabilities in various areas of human activity, is one of the most complicated problems of the human Sciences, and the phenomenon of adaptation is one of the most multidimensional, representing different levels of human existence. In historical-psychological terms is possible to distinguish different theoretical and methodological approaches, with items which are considered the problems of social adaptation of the personality of the visually handicapped. One approach in both General and special psychology is a homeostatic approach. The term «homeostasis» is defined as a moving equilibrium state of a system, which is retained in the process of interaction with violating various internal and external factors (A. G. Maklakov). Central to the doctrine of homeostasis, is the idea that any system aims to maintain its stability. Receiving signals about threatening the system changes, the body includes devices that continue to operate until then, we are still unable to return it in the equilibrium state. The approach to the problem of adaptation as a homeostatic balance between the organism and the environment is presented in the works by A. G. Litvak. In total or partial blindness, as with any other breach analyzer activity, dramatically changing conditions of human vital activity. The reduction coming from outside the cortex visual and proprioceptive impulses and their demonstrative of the reduction in the negative ska-

functioning on the tone of the bark, which influences the mental activity of the individual, the nature of the responses. The activation of the other cortical centers leads to the formation of new temporary nerve connections and to the suppression of old, and eventually to the emergence of new dynamic stereotype. The process of adaptation of the blind man to the environment, поздноослепших to new conditions of vital activity of organism without view is considered as quite long, complex and sometimes painful process, which is manifested in the visually impaired in the wide dissemination of various types of violations of the emotional sphere of a person, caused to some extent by the ongoing restructuring of the higher nervous activity. Avoid this, as noted by A. G. Litvak, can only early intervention in the processes of adaptation of the blind and visually impaired (congenital or acquired early defect) and with the help restore homeostasis (balance of the individual with the environment), rehabilitation in the process of rehabilitation measures persons, fully or partially lost vision in adulthood.

Research physiologists, psychologists show that with a deep visual pathology «physiological measures of the body» (with I. P. Pavlov), aimed at restoring the balance between individuals and the environment, though, and ensure the adaptation of the person to the environment, but may not provide complete recovery of human equilibrium with its environment. These measures are insufficient to compensate for such complex defect and its consequences, related with violation of balance with the social environment. When violations of the internal equilibrium of body systems because of the ka-

the fir or defects biological factors compensation are now independent only in animals, giving adaptive effect. The person biological factors compensation, respectively adaptation to the environment, have importance only if the defects that do not cause deviations in the development and in the mentality manifestations. For more severe injuries of the body (blindness, deafblindness) compensatory adaptation is performed on the basis of synthesis of biological and social factors in the leading role of the latter. For normal mental development requires the assimilation of human experience, which is the result of speech communication, collaboration, active and appropriate action, in connection with than never no biological function will not be able to compensate, to restore the disturbed vision defects connection between human and social environment. From the time of L. S. Vygotsky, one of the first who drew attention to the problem slepota primarily as a social problem of special importance and leading role in the restoration of balance between individuals and the environment in тифлология is given to social factors - the level of development of society, and social position of the blind and visually impaired, the change of position of invalids on sight as a result of changing economic and social situation of people with disabilities through development of the systems of training and education, health care, rehabilitation, and employment, creation of comfortable conditions of life, humanization of society, society's willingness to create the disabled necessary living conditions. A special role in restoring the equilibrium of human interaction with the environment is given to its activity and consciousness. One of the most important

conditions of adaptation to the social environment of people with severe visual impairments is included in project activities. Theoretical and experimental studies (B. M. Акимушкин, K. S. Moore Gulik; M. I. Zemtsov; A. M. Con-

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drugs and others) have shown that different types of activities are crucial to overcome obstacles arising in the mental development as early violations of visual functions, and with the loss of vision in adulthood. Inclusion in various activities - games, educational, labor - increases the activity of people with visual disorders, developing motivational sphere, sencibilisiruet sensitivity intact and violated analytic systems has a positive impact on the development of higher mental functions. The process of restoring balance of mind, overcoming depression, caused by the loss of vision is also connected with the inclusion into the activities (C. S. Merlin).

In recent years the problem of social adaptation of personality with deep visually impaired are considered from the position of theory of mental deprivatsii [the term «deprivation» (deprivation) in the English language used to describe the loss, deprivation of something]. In the result of long-term theoretical and experimental study

the interaction of the human organism with substantive environmental and social environment in natural and artificially created environment (experiments on «sensory deprivation») has developed the concept of «mental deprivation», which refer to the consequences of deprivation is not physical, but psychological plan. It is the consequences of deprivation of basic human needs, necessary

for normal functioning of the psyche for quite a long time - the need to receive sensory information, in establishing emotional, interpersonal relationships, in acquiring the essential skills, knowledge, self-realization. Thus, the concept of «mental deprivation» and «exclusion» cover a range of similar mentality manifestations in terms of violation of balance in the human organism with the environment, and implications of deep visual pathology from the standpoint of the theory of mental deprivation can be seen as a deprivation defeat»that can be expressed in mental tension, in violation of the progress of mental processes, musculoskeletal disorders, expressed vegetative reactivity, in the formation patoharakterologicheskih personality traits, etc.

Thus, along with homeostatic approach in the study of the consequences of the violation of human equilibrium with the subject and the social environment, due to the profound low vision, problems of social rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids on sight increasingly viewed with an integrated approach. In this approach, the emphasis is on understanding of adaptation is not only a process of adaptation, but also as a result of human interaction with the environment - conversion environment and itself. Adaptation is a multi-level education, which allocates interconnected lower and higher levels: biological, physiological, psychological, personal, social, levels of adaptation to the macro-, micro-environment, to himself. With these positions blindness and deep on-

violations of view as complex biopsychosocial problem. In theoretical and experimental studies have noted a negative impact of deep vision at all levels of mental organization, manifesting itself in changes of psychophysiological reactions, emotions, personal qualities, the system of value orientations and life attitudes, relationships, activities and behaviors. Special attention is paid personal determinants of rehabilitation and social adaptation of invalids on sight.

From the positions of existential psychology loss of vision or sharp reduction of visual functions is regarded as a serious traumatic event, as a deep personal crisis (R. P. Benzamidine; I. P. Volkova; H. G. Ermolovich; A. G. Litvak, Yu. Demi-Yanov, V. M. Sorokin; N. Y. Lukoff21), accompanied by the experience of man the loss of the sense of meaning of life, the irreversibility of the changes. The specificity of a leakage of personal crisis and strategies for overcoming it are due to many biological, psychological and social factors (the severity and nature of the visual defect, gender and age characteristics, personal characteristics, relations with social environment, and so on). At the same time, sensory or motor disturbances, leading to disability, are considered not only from the position of limitations. Experience an identity crisis events or «shocks» (C. A. Ananiev), along with an acute negative emotions, despair, depression has internal capacity for personality growth, which is to mobilize the vital activity of the Lich-

in particular, in the understanding and acceptance of oneself, in rethinking own life, in the formation of new partnerships and networks and the inclusion of deep reserves of the psyche. The most important significance in the formation of a negative, destructive, or adaptive, personalized-developmental consequences experiences critical events have the characteristics of consciousness of the person. It is the ability of man to the consciousness and personal integration of the new state and a new experience, to develop a positive attitude towards yourself and your own life in the absence or substantial reduction of view, to take responsibility for their own lives and to constructive activity, aimed at overcoming the social and psychological consequences of blindness, the development of fundamentally different, but no less effective in comparison with the past experience of strategies and techniques to conduct, communication, activities, is leading a psychological factor of social rehabilitation and integration of people with sight disabilities.

Thus, if in previous historical periods, the attention of researchers and practitioners attracted the problems associated with health, labour rehabilitation of invalids on sight, today alongside these problems are not less important and urgent recognized socio-psychological and personal aspects of social adaptation of invalids on sight.

At the same time, yet organizations, professionally engaged in complex socio-psychological support for rehabilitation and integration into society of the visually handicapped. In this regard, it is urgent to develop theoretical and methodological and organizational basis of the activity

centers and services on assistance in adaptation and social integration of invalids on sight, in the achievement of the active life and social position.

With the purpose of definition of current psychological help, and justification of the organizational model of activity of the service of socio-psychological support to persons with a visual deprivation we have conducted a comprehensive empirical study of the main problems, difficulties and personal resources, socio-psychological adaptation of invalids on sight. The study was conducted in 2003-2004 on the basis of the specialized enterprises of the Society of the blind and of the center of medico-social rehabilitation of visually impaired St. Petersburg. The study involved 95 people - invalids aged from 18 to 72 years, 51,4% of them women, 48.6% of men; 48.6% - invalids of the I group, 51.4% - invalids of II group. To implement these goals, we developed psycho-diagnostic complex including the following methods: a questionnaire diagnosis of the level of social фрустрированность L. I. Wasserman

(modification centuries Boyko); questionnaire to the level of subjective control (UIC); methods of diagnostics of level of subjective feelings of loneliness D. Russell, M. Ferguson, personal questionnaire, Eysenck; and we have developed a questionnaire, полустандартизиро and interviews aimed at identifying the subjective experiences of visually impaired and basic queries in providing social-psychological support.

The results obtained indicate that the most significant problems for invalids on till

the deposits are difficulties in the labour rehabilitation and social integration. The feeling of social insecurity felt by many people in the modern world, largely typical for the most vulnerable population - the disabled, including the visually impaired.

Socio-psychological problems of labour rehabilitation of invalids on sight caused mainly by problems of work organization often not appropriate to their psycho-physiological peculiarities and opportunities, low wages, high monotony and insipid economic activity. At the same time, awareness of social demand, the acceptance of the significance of their work, expressed both morally and in material form, are important factors of social adaptation and integration of visually impaired people in society. In this regard, on the background of high social Frou-стрированность in relation to social and political situation, social policy visually handicapped people are generally satisfied with the work. Job satisfaction reflects the possibility of their professional and personal development.

Certainly, labour activity may give a positive result primarily with the accounting for psychophysiological characteristics and opportunities for people with severe visual impairments. However, the choice of work, available for the visually impaired, still doesn't solve the problems of their productive adaptation and social and labour rehabilitation and integration. In labour collective for the visually impaired because of the limited possibilities of their employment is not only significant financial remuneration for their work, but who-

opportunity to meet essential needs associated with communication, - recognition, self-actualization, self-realization, friendships and other Фруст-Ryuusei situation in the labor process is conditioned not only by the problems of work organization of the visually impaired in accordance with their psycho-physiological peculiarities of how the character

relationship with management and colleagues, personal characteristics of the members of the production team, their social attitudes and motives, which manifest themselves in communication (experience, depending on the seeing, the demonstration of mistrust, avoiding contacts, etc.).

Thus, the range of фрустри lapsed situations in the workplace for the visually impaired is wide enough, and the inability to meet important needs can cause mental tension and condition of intra-psychic conflict may interfere with the construction of the integral integrative behaviour and increase the risk of disruption of social adaptation.

This leads to a high importance of psycho-social assistance and support to the blind and visually impaired workers, which is expressed in increasing access to social and cultural information, communication range of opportunities for active involvement in public life, in optimization of psychoemotional state.

Although traditionally, in conditions of specialized production plants pay enough attention to leisure activities-

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work , according to our questionnaires, 80% of workers are interested in the enterprise

conduct more cultural-mass and celebratory events, evenings of rest, 91.4% of the need for organized visits of theatres, museums, concerts, exhibitions, 85.7% say the desire in conducting outreach activities

(lectures, meetings with representatives of science, culture, art, society of St. Petersburg, religious figures). All respondents (100%) need of the organization's legal advice on protection of rights and interests of disabled people.

Almost all of the visually impaired (91.4%) noted the need to provide them with psychological help, motivating it by the difficulties in communicating with strangers and in the regulation of one's own emotional States and health (45.7%). While the surveyed employees would like to receive psychological support in various forms: individual psychological consultation at the enterprise (57.1%); participation in the groups of communication, psychological trainings (42.9%); training of self-regulation, optimization of mood and well-being (71.4%); group lessons in effective self-presentation (65.7%); access to the psychologist's helpline (25.7%); individual psychological consultations at home (20%); lectures on problems of practical psychology (20%). As you can see, a large percentage of respondents voiced the need for training in the optimization of mood and well-being, which indirectly confirms the high degree of emotional tension, which may be due to how the conditions of labor activity and problems of communicative activity, as evidenced by the large number of wish-

were to participate in training communication and lessons on effective самопрезент-tion.

Application of methods of the multidimensional statistical analysis of empirical data allowed to reveal the specificity of socio-psychological problems and requests, depending on the degree of impairment of visual functions and socio-demographic characteristics. The main problem areas, «symptom-target» for psychological assistance and identified categories of invalids on sight, most acutely in need of social-psychological support. Thus, the results of correlation analysis show that the disabled of group I (blind workers) are not satisfied first of all his own position in society, relationships with colleagues and administration; for invalids of group II (visually impaired workers) make greater need to expand your circle of contacts, are interested in carrying out of cultural-mass actions. For people with congenital visually impaired typical social фрустрированность in the field of health care, working conditions and leisure.

Also traced the specific preferences of the forms of socio-psychological assistance to the visually impaired, depending on the nature of their visual defect. Workers with more severe types of pathology (atrophy of the optic nerve degeneration of the retina) would like to receive psychosocial support mainly by the trust, and not in the course of personal interaction that is due to the difficulty in spatial orientation, low mobility, difficulties in communication, mediated visual deprivation. SLA-

бовидящий the disabled with a high degree of myopia, in contrast, are more interested in internal psychological consultations, participation in the training groups, in the organization of active forms of leisure.

The study identified gender and age peculiarities, mediating needs in psycho-social support to invalids. For men are more characteristic of dissatisfaction with the conduct of free time, vacations, as well as limitations in the capabilities to engage in active recreation, physical culture. For women more significant are the possibility of informal communication, as well as acquiring skills sempre-зентация, create their own image of clothes, makeup, hairstyle, etc.

Own lifestyle, including the content and conditions of work, education, economic situation, relations with the administration, leisure, deeply dissatisfied with workers at a young age. Older visually impaired people in a greater degree are experiencing fatigue, psychophysiological problem, often feel their life situation as hopeless, dead-end; believe that the age and disease hampers their social adaptation and integration of the manifestations of the vital activity, which certainly indicates the shortcomings of social work with this category of invalids on sight.

The survey data processing with the help of factor analysis made it possible to identify the main social and psychological factors mediating the rehabilitation and integration of visually impaired workers of the specialized enterprise, and to determine the main directions of socio-

psychological support. The necessity of complex socio-psychological rehabilitation and integration in society are primarily caused by the need for such assistance on the part of the visually impaired, have, according to our survey, the relatively high level of social фрустрированность in the process of production activity. First of all, workers of the specialized enterprises are interested in legal support for the organization of cultural-educational and leisure activity, in the psychological support. The modern technological level of production is blind is not always an opportunity to overcome the monotony, the monotony of work, to improve the content of work, to fill in the deficit of interest to trade, to reduce the overall level of social фрустрированность and thereby improve the life satisfaction of the visually handicapped. It is possible to do by improving the level of awareness of the social importance of labour, use of moral incentives for extensions beyond-industrial interests, increase the level of communicative skills, relieve emotional stress, psychological assistance and other, due to the special attention to the work on optimization of mainly social and psychological adaptation, the level of which in the structure of productive adaptation in comparison with the professional adaptation, according to the existing social science

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research , much lower.

As shown above, the results of empirical studies, psychosocial support should be targeted and

differentially, taking into account gender and age characteristics of the severity and nature of the visual pathology of the vision impaired, and individual psychological characteristics of their personality. A significant factor, which requires special attention from the point of view of individual approach in the process of socio-psychological rehabilitation is the age in which it was lost to sight.

In recent years in the theory and practice of social rehabilitation and integration of visually impaired increasingly focus on this category of invalids on sight, as военноослепший, the number of which, unfortunately, is increasing, and while continuing military actions in different regions of the country, there is a possibility of replenishment of the total number of disabled veterans of this category. According to researches of specialists (doctors, psychologists, psychiatrists)25, the former participants of military actions there are many social and psychological disadaptation: increased conflict, antisocial behavior, the propensity to addiction, alcoholism, lack of prospects in life, the difficulty of establishing interpersonal contacts, instability of self-esteem, etc. which has received the name «Afghan syndrome», «Chechen syndrome». As the main reasons behind the process of rehabilitation and rehabilitation of this category of disabled persons, observed the experience of their crisis situations, requires rethinking the old life of values and attitudes.

Synthesis of studies on problems of rehabilitation of the disabled war shows that for the visually impaired, the former participants of military actions, typical of the experience of the deep

the crisis, which includes three types of crisis situations. The situation of the first type is related to exposure to frontline conditions, with adaptation to the conditions of the war was facilitated by the significance of the values of partnership, mutual assistance, a sense of uniqueness of his experience. The crisis of the second type connected with a necessity of re-adaptation to conditions of peaceful life and the dramatic situation was exacerbated by the events in the country processes that Deplete

common stereotypes associated with a controversial assessment of hostilities. So, the war in Afghanistan was considered as a political mistake and to a lesser extent as execution «international duty». For veterans of the Afghan war, this meant depreciation transferred suffering that is especially sad for people with disabilities. An additional factor strengthening disadaptation, are socio-psychological problems and to other categories of the population of our country, - the difficult financial conditions, lack of medical care, the problem of improvement of housing conditions.

At the same time, as shown by the data in our studies, for visually handicapped people - former members of the military action, the specific features of social and psychological disadaptation, due to the crisis situation of the third type. This situation has the character of post-traumatic stress disorder, rolling in an existential crisis experienced by the individual in connection with loss of vision. The nature of this crisis is independent of the fact of participation in hostilities and the associated psychological and

personal effects. Thus, persons who lost their sight as a result of military actions, are «at risk» in comparison with other categories of invalids from the point of view of social and psychological disadaptation and manifestations of social and psychological disadaptation of this category invalids have both common and specific features.

For those who have lost their sight as a result of military actions, is characterized by the loss experience of view as acute grief, no recoverable losses that cannot survive. About the crisis nature experiences also reflected by the fact that all военноослепший who participated in the study had suicidal thoughts and intentions and, in principle, allowed the possibility of suicide as the way out of the crisis. The majority of respondents noted that they had not courage to interrupt own life, or, on the contrary, suicide is too much for them the easy way out. Another manifestation of the existential crisis is военноослепший fear of the future; and, to a greater extent this applies to young people. Compared with young people, the elderly, families, several more accurately represent future life. However, this perspective is limited to a small interval of time (3-4 months), and the loss of vision and disability may aggravate the symptoms of age-related crisis.

Despite deep experience grief in connection with loss of vision, the majority of respondents mentioned that their hopes on the rehabilitation and repair of own «usefulness» and incapacitation.

As a personal, internal resources to overcome the crisis, they highlight the emotional-volitional qualities of personality (the desire to rehabilitative activities, diligence, perseverance, patience). This especially concerns the older people, while the young people at this stage of rehabilitation are not aware of their own capabilities in overcoming the crisis.

In the result of the correlation analysis of the examined characteristics were identified that older people with higher levels of education, passed over a long rehabilitation course, tend to take on the responsibility for the most significant situations, in particular in the field of interpersonal contacts and your own health. This, on the one hand, due to life experience, communications skills, on the other hand, testifies to the effectiveness of rehabilitation activities to restore the skills of spatial and consumer orientation. At the same time, the high level of responsibility and awareness of life's difficulties, caused loss of vision, can lead to deep feelings that are associated with reduced opportunities for the practical realization of responsibility for themselves and their loved ones.

Young people with a demonstration of the high level of anxiety tend to attribute the responsibility for your life to other people or circumstances, in particular in the field of interpersonal relationships, and health.

Thus, the most significant problem areas - «symptom-targets» psychological correction and psychotherapy военноослепший are Pro-

the issue of relation to himself, to his own defect, the problem of realization of the prospects of their future, relationships to other people and our health in General, prevention of suicidal tendencies in the process of adaptation to blindness. Psychological help for this category of invalids must be directed, on the one hand, to eliminate the psychological manifestations of exclusion due to the effects of stay in extreme conditions of hostilities, and on the other hand, to assist in experiencing a man crisis, caused by the loss of vision and disability.

Hence it is necessary to create the service of socio-psychological support on the basis of the Center of medical-social rehabilitation for invalids on sight. On the basis of theoretical analysis of the literature in the field of тифлология, General and special psychology, psychotherapy, obtained empirical results, indicating the needs for such assistance on the part of the visually impaired, we created the organizational model of the activity of the service of socio-psychological support for the visually impaired.

The basic purposes of activity of the service:

- assistance to visually impaired people in social and personal adjustment to the social environment and to life in General, harmonization of relationship to ourselves, to others and to the world, professional and personal self-realization;

- overcoming difficulties in socio-psychological adaptation and personal self-development of the visually impaired;

- optimization of the relations between the normally sighted people and visually impaired people;

- improving mental resources and adaptation capacity of activity of the visually handicapped.

Stakeholders social and psychological services: visually handicapped people; scientific guidance services, community workers VOS; psychologists, social workers, lawyers, therapists, тифлолог.

Subject of activity of the service is a social and psychological assistance to blind people, especially поздноослепший, lonely and elderly and senile age; study of peculiarities, adaptation strategies and to overcome problems of personal and social resources, which allows to optimize the processes of integration of invalids into society.

The service operates as an integrated system consisting of three pillars:

• scientific-methodical and educational work;

• social work;

• psychological assistance;

Scientific-methodical and educational direction supposes to develop theoretical and methodological foundations to help service activities, organization of training seminars for social workers, psychologists, special education teachers and the students in these trades. The main task of this direction is of theoretical and experimental research of the problems of rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids, personal resources that facilitate their integration and fulfilment, justification and development of diagnostic, correctional and developmental methods of work of service, practical training and refresher training of specialists for work with invalids on sight.

The direction of social work.

The direction of the psychological help"

The objective here is to ensure the inclusion of visually impaired persons in the socio-cultural environment because of the social and psychological consequences of vision defects are observed primarily in the limited social contacts, access to information, opportunities for active participation in society. To implement this goal, we must conduct the following work:

• organization of cultural and leisure events, gala evenings, visits to theatres, museums, concert halls and so on;

• provision of information: the creation of lectures, thematic radio programs on local radio network to the enterprise;

• cooperation with the media (public relations) with the aim of informing the society about the opportunities and needs of the visually handicapped, social and professional success of the blind and visually impaired, the problems of rehabilitation and social integration of persons with severe visual impairments to form the humane attitude of the society towards disabled people;

• sharing experience and projects with other institutions on the basis of creative cooperation, seminars, competitions, exhibitions, conferences on relevant issues, rehabilitation, adaptation and integration of visually impaired people;

• legal support of invalids on sight - organization of legal consultations to inform about the changes in the legislation, protection of rights and interests of disabled people in society.

cabbage soup includes the following aspects:

• diagnostics of individual psychological characteristics of the individual, interpersonal, family relations; professional preferences, abilities, interests, inclinations; assistance in realization of our own personal resources;

• psychological counseling on personal and social problems.

• assistance in harmonization of relationships to self, significant other, to the social environment; increasing of self-acceptance, self-confidence;

• prevention of possible difficulties in the adaptation of invalids on sight, development of skills and skills of self-regulation, relaxation, and promoting full personal and professional development;

• improvement of skills of interpersonal perception, efficient business and personal communication, understanding, preventing, and positive conflict resolution;

• assistance in overcoming the psychological consequences of vision loss, psychological support rehabilitation and socio-psychological adaptation of people who have lost vision in adulthood, and single disabled elderly age.

Psychological counseling and support are provided in the following forms:

- individual consultations of the visually handicapped room service;

- individual consultations in the homes of clients (on request);

- socio-psychological trainings and group communication;

- anonymous telephone consultations of the psychologist, the helpline.

Structure, management and personnel support services

The service includes the following functional departments (divisions): scientific methodological, social and legal support; psychological aid.

Scientific-methodical manual

service is carried out in cooperation with the staff of the service (collection service employees) and members of the BOC.

The staff of the service includes full-time employees, as well as rehabilitation from muscular-experts, psychologists, social workers, providing the service under pluralism, volunteers, students-psychologists and special education teachers.

Thus, the creation of a specialized organization, which is aimed at supporting the socio-psychological assistance to the blind and visually impaired, is a necessary condition for successful adaptation of people with disabilities in today's dynamic and complex OK-

survive in the environment that will allow them more flexibly and effectively interact with the world, accept and comply with the relevant social and professional roles, to achieve the necessary level of independence and self-realization, to feel a full member of society. The organizational model of the service's activity allows to implement integrative approach, having great potential in terms of socio-psychological rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids on sight. At present, the developed model was successfully tested at specialized enterprise EGM «SCP-5» and on the basis of the Center of rehabilitation of invalids of Saint Petersburg. At this stage implements the direction of psychological support. As shown by preliminary data, visually handicapped people are positive about the results of psychological assistance, expressing the need for constant psychological assistance, and in some cases - in consultations of doctors - психоневролог and psychotherapists.

NOTES

1 Ageev E. D. To the question of the relation between individual and collective social rehabilitation and integration of people with sight disabilities. SPb., 1999. C. 143-147.

2 Volkova I. P. Socio-psychological factors of job satisfaction in the process of adaptation of invalids on sight: the Dis. ... Cand. the course of studies. Sciences. SPb., 2003.

3 Гудонис B. N. Fundamentals and prospects of social adaptation of persons with reduced vision. M; Voronezh, 1998.

4 Kantor C. H. Pedagogical support of social and labour rehabilitation of invalids on sight. SPb., 2001.

5 Litvak, A. G. Psychology blind and visually impaired. SPb., 1998.

6 Silkin. N. Psychological support of the elementary rehabilitation. M., 1983.

7 Черанев Century I. Psychological aspects of rehabilitation blinded in adulthood // Peculiarities of educational activity and employment in the deep vision problems. Leningrad, 1983. C. 3-12

8 Язвина I. M. Improvement of management system of social rehabilitation M, 1985.

9 A. Maklakov, the Adaptation of the person and the functional state of the organism. General psychology. SPb., 2000. C. 437-455

10 Litvak, A. G. Theoretical problems of тифлопсихология. Leningrad, 1973; Тифлопсихология. M., 1985.

11 Vygotsky L. S. Blind child. SOBR. 2004 M., 1983. So 5. C. 86-101.

12 Акимушкин Century Meters, Morgulis K. C. Labour rehabilitation of invalids on sight. Kiev, 1983.

13 Zemtsova M. I. Compensation of blindness. M., 1956.

14 Kondrashov A. M. rehabilitation of the blind. M., 1976.

15 Merlin Century. C. Psychological conflicts blinded and workarounds // Problems of experimental psychology of the personality. Perm, 1977.

16 Лангмейер St., Матейчик Z. Mental deprivation in childhood. Prague, 1984.

17 Benzamidine R. Stress situation and дистрессовый reaction in persons with acquired blindness: the Dis. ... Cand. the course of studies. Sciences. 1988.

18 Volkova I. P. Worldview aspects of socio-psychological rehabilitation of people with severe visual impairments // Actual problems of socialization of the visually handicapped. SPb.,1999 - Senior 171-176.

19 Yermolovich z, Psychological and pedagogical aspects of rehabilitation of invalids on sight, Psychological, providing elementary rehabilitation. M., 1988. C. 3-14.

20 Litvak, A. G., Y. Demianov, Sorokin A. MT and other Psychotherapeutic aid in Troubleshooting installations on disability has blinded // Some questions of social rehabilitation of invalids on sight. M., 1995. C. 3-18.

21 Lukoff N. Y. Attitudes toward the blind // Attitudes toward blind persons/Ed. By Lukoff. Ameri-kan Faundaition from the Blind. 1972.

22 Ananiev Century A. introduction to the psychology of health. SPb., 1999.

23 Kantor C. H. visually Handicapped people in the world artistic culture. SPb., 1996.

24 Dobrovolskaya T. A., Shabalina N. B. characteristics of production adaptation of the disabled // Sociological studies. 1993. № 3. C. 121-125.

25 Social and labour rehabilitation of invalids. M., 1997.

I. Volkova, N. Koroliova

THEORETICAL METHODOLOGICAL AND ORGANISATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF REHABILITATION OF THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED

Modern theoretical approaches to the problem of social rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids on sight are considered. The data of the empirical research revealing basic problems and personal resources of social and psychological adaptation of invalids on sight of various age categories and with a various degree of infringement of sight (blind and visually impaired) and their demands in social psychological support are presented.

An organizational model of the operation of Center of social psychological support is described. This model is based on integrative approach, and it possesses a large potential for social psychological rehabilitation and adaptation of invalids on sight.