Today the question of the development of creative thinking of students in the theory and practice of training is particularly important.
The methods of stimulation of creativity usually include those techniques that allow you to remove or reduce barriers between the conscious and the unconscious. In this category some authors include quite exotic techniques, based on the withdrawal of mission critical installations and censorship of the consciousness through the use of alcohol, barbiturates and other drugs; the application of the techniques of hypnosis; the application of the methods of solving problems by searching hints in a dream.
More widespread technique of brainstorming A. Osborn, the main meaning of which is the separation between different people generative part of the thinking of the act and parts of the monitoring and enforcement (some participants generate hypotheses ban any criticism, and the other later evaluate their real value). On its basis a method synectics ' (connection heterogeneous in one), assuming training subjects ability to generate analogy of a different type and other techniques, so you can see the familiar in a strange and unfamiliar in the familiar. Also used the method of compilation of tables, method of garlands, method of test questions and others .
Yu, Tamberg notes the following techniques and methods of formation of creative thinking: method of planting ideas (Злотин); the method of personal example; the reception of «zoom»; change the laws of nature; the fantastic changes in man and humanity, adding one or several new characteristics or to one person or to many people (exclusion of certain qualities of the person, the transformation of man in any object transformation of any object in the person (anthropomorphism)); transformation of inanimate nature in living beings; change the conventional relations, functions, and relations between objects; a fantastic addition; fantastic grinding; techniques for fantasizing connected with the change of time (reception «acceleration - deceleration»); receiving a «time machine»free fantasy; a technique of creation of new tales .
S. I. Gin also allocates associative riddles and metaphors, reception, «generalization», reception of an «Association»reception «morphological analysis», word games, techniques fantasizing J.. Rodari «Binom fantasy» Custom console»reception «What then?», reception Creative error»reception «revival»reception «on the contrary», fantasy and forecasting .
A. M. Kalugin and N. Century Новотворцева notes such techniques and methods of formation of creative thinking as crosswords, quizzes, puzzles and jokes, task-riddles, humorous stories and затейные mathematical problems that develop ingenuity, intelligence, contribute to overcoming the inertia of the mind, the nomination of the original non-standard variants of the decision .
A. Century farmhouse among the creative methods to facilitate the development of creative thinking, singled out:
-Method of inventing is a way to create an unknown disciples earlier product in them the certain creative action.
Method «If...». Pupils are invited to describe or draw a picture of what will happen if in the world that anything will change, for example: increased 10 times the force of gravity; disappear end in words or words themselves and etc.
Method hyperbole. Increases or decreases the object of knowledge, its parts or individual quality.
Method of agglutination. Pupils are invited to combine the incompatible in reality, quality, properties, parts of objects.
-Inversion method, or method of appeals. When stereotypical techniques prove to be ineffective, is used fundamentally opposite alternative solutions .
Widespread different kinds of trainings, first of all, training, self-confidence, sensitivity training, and other But the main prerequisite for the emergence of creative people is, of course, the corresponding system of training and education, which we'll talk some more.
Can formulate some pedagogical principles and direct advice for parents, teachers and coaches, following which you can reduce the "антитворческий" or "creativity-the inhibitory effect to any training. "Творчествоподавляющее action knowledge largely depends on the way of its receipt, a degree of "уроднения", as expressed poets-symbolists, a person with this knowledge. Whether it creatively recreated, переоткрыто by the person himself or left for him something formal, alien and strange? The answer to this question depends on the future role of the acquired knowledge in our lives. Below are some recommendations, summarizing the experience of teachers and psychologists are concerned with the development of creative potential of pupils.
. One of the first pedagogical requirements to the process of education from the point of view of development of creative thinking, is that in any case not to suppress the intuition of the student.
. Second recommendation concerns the formation of the student's self-confidence, faith in his ability to solve the problem.
. During training it is desirable to the maximum extent rely on positive emotions (surprise, joy, sympathy and feeling of success and etc). Negative emotions suppress manifestations of creative thinking.
. You must encourage the desire of the student to
self-goals, objectives and means of their solution (both large and in private matters).
. It should be widely encouraged the tendency to a healthy risk-taking behavior.
. The crucial task is not to allow the formation of conformal thinking, fight in appeasement, and the orientation of the majority opinion.
. To develop imagination and not to suppress the tendency to fantasising, even if it sometimes borders on выдаванием inventions for the truth.
. Form sensitivity to contradictions, the ability to detect and consciously articulate them.
. Often used in training of the tasks of the so-called open type, when there is no one correct solution, which remains only to find or guess. In itself training in producing of possible solutions (hypotheses) significantly increases fluency, flexibility and originality of thinking.
. A wider use of the problematic teaching methods that encourage the installation of independently or with the help of teachers discovery of new knowledge, strengthens the faith of the student in their ability to such discoveries.
. Very useful for the development of creative thinking is the education of special heuristic methods of the solution of different tasks.
. Finally, the main, the twelfth Mitzva, is to encourage the student to be himself, his ability to listen to your "I" and to act in accordance with his "advice". To do this, at all stages of learning, the teacher should not only declare their respect for the individual student, but really to feel, to experience the timeless and incomparable value of every living person .
Formation of creative thinking is not instantaneous. In order to fully develop creative thinking of students requiring special classes, which meet all the above conditions. We developed special program of development of creative thinking in children младшешкольного age on the basis of known theoretical models of the structure of intelligence J.. Guildford, its approaches to the development of creative thinking, as well as on the basis of today's most popular and effective development programs J.. Рензулли, techniques, exercises proposed by Yu. B. Гатановым , A. Century Хуторским , So-called. Knyazeva , S. D. Забрамной and Yu. A. Костенковой , M. A. Kalugin and N. Century Новотворцевой , S. I. Гином , Yu. G. Тамбергом  (see Annex). The proposed correctional program includes specially chosen exercises and tasks for the development of creative thinking abilities and provides students and teachers theoretically in a systematic and practically affective material to overcome stereotyped stereotypes of thinking. When implementing this program, the main work is carried out with such indicators creative thinking as fluency, originality, flexibility, readiness.
The main purpose of correctional-developing program can be best explained by contrasting it with the creative divergent thinking and traditional convergent thinking on development that an emphasis modern schools when teachers are usually offer students the problems and challenges already having in their minds the correct answer. In accordance with this approach, the answers of students are assessed on the following criteria 1) the degree of precision of a response, (2) degree of detail; 3) speed (who earlier); 4) the accuracy and the degree of compliance to the established form of the answer (with the written tasks).
Thus, the raised teacher or suggested in the tutorial, problems, objectives and tasks of the traditional type to lead, in appropriate evaluation criteria, to the fact that develops the style of the exercises, focused on pointing at the correct answer. Of course, convergent thinking skills develop, you must, however, be sure to give children the opportunity to develop creative divergent thinking.
Purpose of developed correctional-developing programmes: to help develop in younger schoolchildren quality of the creative personality, verbal and non-verbal indicators of creative thinking (originality, flexibility, readiness, fluency), imagination, creativity, ability to perform a variety of tasks, generate numerous responses.
Although the objective of this course is to develop the creative thinking of children and providing them with the necessary materials, exercises and tasks, there is another no less important goal ? this help in discovering and developing creative pedagogical potential of teachers themselves. It is impossible to teach creativity and most do not become more creative person.
The content of the software product are of reference for the development of indicators of verbal and non-verbal creative thinking.
Program material is divided into 2 blocks:
verbal creative thinking;
non-verbal creative thinking.
Each unit contains a number of assignments (exercises), intended for the development of creative abilities.
Work under the program is carried out in the form of special lessons. This correctional software may be included in the school component of the curriculum as an elective courses (held once a week. The program consists of 7 classes of 40 minutes each. Classes are held once a week. Correctional program the most efficient in case of 8-12 people.
This program and consequently all the tasks and exercises contained in it are intended for the development of the following creative thinking abilities:
. Fluency ? it is the ability to quickly generate a stream of ideas, possible solutions, suitable objects, etc. This indicator is not specific for creative thinking and useful, above all, that allows to understand the other indicators of creative thinking.
.Гибкость ? this is the ability to use a variety of approaches and strategies in addressing the problems, readiness to consider the available information from different perspectives. This indicator assesses the diversity of ideas and strategies, the ability to move from one aspect to another. If the subject has a low index of flexibility, this indicates the rigidity of thinking, a low level of awareness, limited intellectual capacity and / or low motivation.
. Originality ? this is the ability to create intelligent, unique and unusual ideas and solutions. The indicator characterizes the ability to put forward ideas that differ from the obvious, well-known, common, banal, or firmly established. The one who receives the highest values of this indicator, usually characterized by a high intellectual activity and неконформностью. Originality of solutions implies the ability to avoid the lungs, obvious and uninteresting answers.
4. Development (thoroughness, drill images). The ability to elaborate ? this ability to expand, develop, embellish and detail develop any ideas, stories and drawings. Captures the ability of the invention, constructive activity. Measured by the number of relevant and irrelevant details at development of the main ideas. High values of this indicator are characteristic for students with high academic performance, capable of inventive and constructive activity. Lowest lagging, unruly and careless students. Indicator of the level of readiness of the responses reflect another type of fluency of thought and in certain situations can be both an advantage and a limitation, depending on how this quality manifests itself .
Exercises and tasks of the program are classified as follows:
1)respectively in these capacities;
2)according to the types presented in the exercises of information (shaped, semantic or symbolic);
)respectively ways in which this information is organized in each exercise (unit classes, relationships, systems, transformation, implication, detailed development).
The value of these exercises is that together they allow you to effectively develop creative thinking.
During the lessons on the development of the qualities of a creative personality should be humor and laughter, and in General good mood. And the spirit of healthy competition, increased the tempo, full employment and interest. Activity of children must be varied quickly exchangeable, in the form of the game. Should alternate physical, mental and emotional weight, simple and complex. With no restrictions neither in the media nor in the form of expressing his ideas. Connection between our actions and feelings double sided feelings affect the actions and actions cause certain feelings. It is necessary to teach children to extract the joy of learning. If your child does matter - he likes to do - it does not like to do .
The program is built taking into account the age of children and their basic psychological tumors. The pace could be flexible enough. Same topic can take some time, as activity in children is different, and they must listen to everyone. In addition, depending on the specifics of a particular class and individual interests of children, some themes can be extended, and some reduced or even excluded from the programme. The program can be used for the development of creative thinking as gifted children, and at normal and even a few retarded children.
The work of the children are encouraged to hang in the room for your lessons.
In the development of creative thinking in primary school is extremely important role of «coach» ? clever, knowledgeable, good, fair, loving, and understanding of children. Cannot teacher, pedagogue, psychologist to teach well what he can not do, the more thinking, if he knows even the basics of methods of thinking. .
Teacher, psychologist should accept and support all children's ideas, in whatever form they were expressed. If the idea of the child contrary to the decisions of the majority, teacher, psychologist accepts and supports the child, thus showing the importance of diversity and individuality.
During the sessions, you must follow certain rules. So, if children do not want to do what they are asked to leave them alone. Sometimes ? especially with younger kids ? it is necessary to provide them with the physical support (hug, caress, press). If children are repeated, it is necessary to listen to them, no matter how many times repeated the same answer. A child repeating a strange answer, still expresses their own personal attitude to what is happening.
Absolutely excluded during these sessions any criticism of the children, their actions, ideas, solutions, their personality. It is necessary to praise and support for the children, calling those specific facts and details that much. You must vocally expressed surprise and admiration for all that children do in these sessions. In his speech teacher, psychologist should not use negative words (bad error, wrong, bad, incorrect), you need to use more positive words (well, in a brilliant, well done, well done, clever, wonderful, success, luck). In each lesson, you need to find something positive and call it out loud.. If something irritates teacher, psychologist, should appeal not to the personality and actions of the disciples, and to the rules of carrying out of employment (for example: «In our lessons we can talk and shout impossible not to bother other in school») .
In conclusion, it should be noted that the formation of mentally processes and personality of the child in General is a complex process, requiring the joint efforts of both teachers and parents. So teachers, educators, conducting independent work with children must not only possess theoretical knowledge, the ability to practically work with the children, knowledge of literature, but also to attract to prevent participation of parents and children. Some of the tips and suggestions to the organization and conducting the work.
First, you must inform parents literature of which they can use in their work with children.
Secondly, it is necessary to give advice to parents on the organization of activities with children. These lessons should be regular, wear a curious nature, they cannot be turned into extra-curricular activities. For such activities are better to use after-hours activities for children. The main thing is that at this moment the child wanted to do. Adult cannot impose our desire for a child. An obligatory condition is creating a situation of success, encouraging the child, the stimulation of its further work. To ensure that a child is not upset in case of failures, timely and reasonable steps assistance. Not recommended to immediately show the children how to perform this task, do the job for him, it is necessary to adjust the dose of assistance. The job must be short on time, so as not to cause fatigue and satiety.
Thirdly, it is necessary to give advice on the content of the work. Parents need to show how better to use one or another package of material, help to choose independently the material, similar to the resulted in benefits, but to the age and level of General and mental development of the child. Parents must understand that it is not always have to strictly follow the suggested sequence of tasks. Each child always has its own characteristics and problems that need to be considered. For example, for some children the most important formation of the verbal creative thinking, and for others ? non-verbal creative thinking. In some children the most unformed are flexibility or originality of thinking, therefore, the main emphasis in correctional-developing work to do on the development of these qualities, etc. to advise parents to make classes possible varied in content, include the tasks of different directions.