From a philosophical point of view of any human activity is a creative act, for the subject and the object out of the act of the activities other than they entered it. But in the interests of psychological analysis of the division of mental activity on the creative productive and reproductive quite justified, and it is based on both objective and subjective (psychological) criteria .
. Creative is called an activity that leads to a new result, the new product.
. Since the new product can be obtained by chance or by continuous неэвристического sorting options, then to the criterion of novelty of the product usually add a criterion of novelty of the process by which this product was received (a new method, method, mode of action).
. The process or result of cogitative act called creative only if he could not be obtained in the result of the simple logical deduction or steps of the algorithm. In case of truly creative act overcome the logical gap on the way to the task to its solution. Bridging this gap is possible due to irrational beginning, intuition.
. Creative thinking is typically associated not so much with the decision have been shipped someone task, but with the power to see and to formulate the problem. Mathematics claim that mathematical talent is not in their ability to solve mathematical tasks (this can be "taught" almost any), but, first of all, the ability to formulate the mathematical language problem, which is taken from real life or other field of knowledge, i.e. put it as a mathematical problem.
. A very important psychological criterion of creative thinking is the strong emotional experience prior to finding a solution. The existence of such experience and its precedence in time to the creative act of insight, insight) are shown in strict experimental studies. The role of emotional experience, in particular a sense of beauty, which directs the search for a solution, noted by the famous French mathematician A. Poincare.
. Creative thinking act generally requires a steady and sustained or more short, but very strong motivation.
, Helmholtz, A. Poincare and a number of other authors distinguish four phases of any creative solution:
phase of gathering materials, accumulation of knowledge, which could form the basis of the decision or reformulation of the problem;
phase of maturation, or incubation, when works mostly subconscious, but at the level of conscious regulations a person can engage in very different activities;
phase illumination, or insight, when the decision is often quite suddenly and entirely appears in consciousness;
phase control, or test that requires the full involvement of consciousness.
Other authors identify a greater number of phases or stages, but the schematic diagram of a leakage of the creative act remains the same.
An empirical study of the creative thinking in modern psychology is carried out using the following methods.
. Analysis of the process of solving the so-called small creative tasks or problems thinking (philosophy), requiring, as a rule, a redefinition of tasks or going beyond the limits that the subject itself imposes. These tasks are very convenient for experimentation, as the time of finding solutions practically coincides with its implementation, which is not always the case when solving real-life problems.
. The use of introductory tasks. In this case examines the human sensitivity to the prompt contained in causeth the task which has to be solved easier, than basic, but built on the same principle, and therefore may help to solve the main.
. The use of "multi-layer" tasks. The examinee is given a series of similar tasks with simple solutions. Not a very creative person will just settle such problems, every time you re looking for a solution. A creative person complies with the "intellectual initiative and will attempt to open more common pattern of lying in the basis of each individual solution.
. Methods of expert assessments for the determination of the creative work of people in any field of science, art or practice.
. Analysis of products and activities to determine the degree of novelty and originality.
. Some scales of personality questionnaires and projective tests (MMPI, the Rorschach inkblot test) may provide information on the severity of creativity in thinking person.
. Special tests of creativity (творческости), based on the solution of the tasks of the so-called open type, i.e. those who do not have a single correct solution and allow unlimited, as a rule, the number of solutions of (unlike tests of intelligence, using the tasks of the closed type with only one or a few known proper decisions).
One of the most well-known tests of creativity is a test Торренса. He has two variants - verbal and symbolism (picture). Examples of tasks (sub tests): amend the geometrical figure; make as many drawings using this shape (for example, the triangle); improve the design of toys to children more interested to play with it; come up with as many options as possible use of the subject (for example, bricks); ask as many questions to drawing; come up with as many incredible events, etc. On the results of the test are: fluency thinking (quantitative characteristics of products - the number of invented options); flexibility of thinking (the number of qualitatively different categories, which can be attributed to each of the answers); originality (this is the opposite of the frequency of occurrence of this response in the standard sample of subjects) and детализированностъ (or maturity) reply how purely schematic or, on the contrary, the rich details). So, if given субтест, containing in himself the task to come up with as many options as possible the use of bricks, that answers like to build a house, build a bridge, etc. will be assigned to one category - the use of brick as a construction material. Responses same type of use of brick as a measure of length, draw something to them, to train on it the force of impact, etc, will be classified in different categories, but they will not be original as they occur much more frequently than 1 % of cases. Validity and reliability tests of creativity lower than tests of intelligence, but are within acceptable limits.
Some of these methods were applied, in particular, to study the relation of levels of development of the intellect and creativity. Finds the absence of rigid connection between these levels. Different people have creativity and intellect can be expressed in very different extent that, in turn, affects the whole person. On the effect of the level of development of the intellect is possible to obtain socially significant results in creative activities of the prevailing point of view, which is called the threshold theory. Its essence is that the optimal level of the intellectual development is in the area of intelligence coefficient (IQ), equal to approximately 120. Higher level of development of the intellect is not conducive to the creative achievements of the person, and sometimes and can prevent them. Intellectual coefficient below 120 may cause obstacles for high achievements in creative activities .
So, the main criteria of creativity (productive) thinking that distinguishes it from the reproductive (playback) include: a criterion of novelty of the product; the criterion of novelty of the process for obtaining a product, the presence of intuition, irrational beginning in the creative act of the thinking, ability not so much ready to solve problems as the ability to see and formulate tasks and problems; the strong emotional experience prior to the time of finding a solution; a demand by the creative thinking act strong motivation.
The main methods of studying of creative thinking are: tasks to wit, leading tasks, multi-layered tasks, the method of expert estimates, analysis of products and activities, some scale personality questionnaires and projective tests, special tests of creativity.