The main content of adolescence is self-determination, and above all professional. For internal positions teenager is characterized by a special attitude to the future: perception, assessment of this occurs to them from the point of view of the future.
Teenagers ' activities often are determined by random factors. Teen focuses only on the content and the external prestige of the professional activity, not noticing the other aspects (e.g., geologist should spend half your life in expeditions, that the history is interesting study, but using this specialty, if you don't want to be a school teacher, is rather limited, etc). Besides the world of professions, like everything else, in this age often seems black and white: the "good" of the profession all good, the bad, everything is bad. The sharply expressed, robust, and active inclinations of adolescents do not occur too often.
The basis for adequate professional selection of a teenager is the formation of cognitive interests and professional inclinations of a person. Under the interest refers to active cognitive orientation person on this or that subject. With regard to the choice of profession interests of a positive attitude towards a specific area of labour, the desire for knowledge and activity. Interests differ in content, breadth, length, and depth. The content and scope of interests reflect horizons and human curiosity. The depth and duration of interests characterize the stability of the professional choice.
G.I. Shchukin, considering the level of development of cognitive interests, highlights such components as curiosity, inquisitiveness, theoretical interest. Professional interest in young people as a cognitive includes three main components: emotions, intelligent, strong-willed.
Component emotions in adolescents is primarily associated with a positive attitude to the profession, to the people of this profession. He expressed the feelings behind the "covers" the success of the activity, both at the individual and others, the prospect of work, which is a condition for origin of interest. Emotions can be experienced in the process of mastering the profession, directly in labour activity in the form of the experience of the joy of success. Data emotions are a sign of interest to the profession and contribute to its strengthening.
The intellectual component plays a significant role in the understanding of the adolescent value and sense of professional activity, which acts as a precondition of interest. Successful solution of the mental part of the task when performing work contributes to the formation and consolidation of professional interest.
Volitional component plays an important role in the domestic mobilization of adolescents to overcome difficulties in mastering of the profession.
All three components are interrelated, but, nevertheless, the dominance of one of them at a time.
Peculiarity of interrelation between emotions and intellectual components is that the first prepares the positive attitude of the teenager to their chosen profession. The intellectual component enhances the positive attitude of students to the profession, revealing the significance and meaning of it. The role of volitional component is very high. Volitional component of interest is manifested when the teenager after the first failures continues activities or refuses it. The level of development will depend, will further develop the interest to the profession or not. This shows the relationship of emotional and volitional component in the development of professional interest of the adolescent.
For the education of professional interest can be more emphasis on one of the components, for example on emotions. However, the most effective education of professional interest proceeds at interaction of all components. The stronger interest in the process of activity and result in a successful teen overcomes the difficulties encountered. In these conditions, he quickly formed strong-willed qualities. But there is also a feedback: to strong interest you need a certain level of volitional development.
С.Л. Rubinstein wrote: "the Interest creates a tendency or is it" . He assumed and the possibility of contradiction between the propensity and the relevant interest. Some observe that interest precedes the development tendency, others point out that the tendency contributes to the development of the corresponding interest. 
Analysis of the research dedicated to the development of interests allows to allocate 4 stages in the process of their formation. On the first at the age of 12-13 interests are characterized by high variability, poorly integrated, not linked to the structure of individual psychological characteristics are mainly informative. At the second stage 14-15 years is tender to the greater of interests, integration, and inclusion in the General structure of индивидных and personal characteristics. At the third stage, at the age of 16-17 years is intensifying integration processes and their differentiation according to sex, a combination of cognitive and professional interests, strengthen the relationship of interest with the individual psychological properties. At the fourth stage - the stage of initial professionalism - a narrowing of cognitive interests, defined formed professional orientation and choice of profession [1; 4].
As a rule, with the age of the interests of the child from amorphous, uncertain and малоустойчивых become more stable, are concentrated in certain areas. But this is not always the case. Sometimes in adolescence and young adulthood interests and aptitudes expressed little, sometimes so diverse that it is difficult to separate the main, core side, temporary. Of course, interests, abilities and values appear, at least implicitly, at any stage of the selection. But the value aspects as public awareness of the social values of the profession), and personal (awareness of what the individual wants to themselves)are more common and usually ripen and understood later than the interests and abilities, differentiation and consolidation which is parallel and interconnected. The interest in the subject encourages schoolchildren to be more involved in them, it is developing its ability; and identified capacity, improving performance, in turn, provoke interest.
The interests of the advanced level of development, constitute the basis for the formation of professional orientation of the individual and of adequate, Mature professional choice. Professional orientation is based on individual psychological characteristics, system potentials of personality and has a pronounced sexual specifics: boys more common technical orientation, girls - social and art .
The process of professional self-determination along a number of stages. The first stage - a children's game in which a child is taking on different professional roles and "loses" some elements associated behaviors. The second stage - teenage fantasy, when a teenager sees himself in dreams representative attractive profession for him. The third phase, covering the whole adolescence and a large part of adolescence pre - selection of a profession. Different activities will be sorted and evaluated first from the point of view of the interests of the adolescent ("I love history, I shall think I historian!"), further in terms of his ability ("I is mathematics, do not do it?") and, finally, in terms of its system of values ('I want to help the sick, going to a doctor"). The fourth stage - the practical adoption of the decision, the actual choice of profession - includes two main components: a definition of the level of education of the future labour, amount and period necessary to prepare for it, i.e. the choice of a particular specialty.
Besides interests, abilities and values, important role in the decision plays estimation of the objective possibilities of the material conditions of the family, the level of training, health and other
The most important psychological prerequisites of successful professional self-determination are formed intellectual potential, adequate self-esteem, emotional maturity and self-identity.
In the conditions of modern schooling, when the majority of students have to choose future profession or profile training at the age of 13-14, adolescents often are not prepared for self and find the low activity in professional self-determination. This indicates a need for implementation in schools and other educational institutions of vocational orientation and psychological counseling in choosing a profession.