Having studied the special psychological literature about the younger schoolchildren, consider what qualitative changes in the development of attention to occur during the elementary school age.
The main activity of the child after 7 years teaching in the school. This activity introduces significant changes in the course of all mental processes. Changes and attention of children to which the training activities are placing new demands. 
To a problem of development of children's attention is traditional. This is largely due to the peculiarities of mental development of young learners.
The predominant attention of the younger schoolboy remains involuntary, the physiological basis of which is indicative reflex. The most characteristic of «inattention», «dispersion», «отвлекаемость» for children of 6-7 years, i.e. first-graders. Their attention is poorly organized, is small, poorly распределяемо, unstable, largely because of the low capacity of the regulatory neurophysiological mechanisms arbitrary behaviour management in General and attention in particular.
At this age is still a strong reaction to everything new, bright, unusual. The child is not sufficiently manage their attention. This can be explained by the fact that prevails clearly shaped the nature of mental activity. Students direct all their attention to the eye-catching items.
Involuntary attention in the period of learning for the child develops. Junior schoolboy quickly responds to what he is interested in, so it is very important to educate the educational interests and needs of students.
In elementary school there is a development of voluntary attention of students.
Interesting data on the development of attention leads Понарядова G.N. It was revealed that in children with various academic progress of attention during class 1-4 develops differently. The medium - and academically advanced students attention developed medium, the standouts is well and under-achievers students initially low level of attention. From class to class of academically advanced students, there is intense development of voluntary attention and слабоуспевающих indicators attention in the 1st and 2nd classes are about the same and only to the 3rd class of a slight increase.
Development of voluntary attention in primary school is closely connected with the development of responsible attitude to the teaching. Students without a sense of responsibility to carefully work only with interesting material.
Voluntary attention in the Junior school age and develops along with the development of motives. The possibility of volitional regulation of attention in the Junior school age are limited. If a teenager or a senior student may force himself to concentrate on the boring and hard work for the result, which is expected in the future, the younger schoolchild can usually concentrated work only in the presence of close motivation (prospects of «the five», to earn the praise of teachers). The education of the Junior schoolchildren distant motivation of voluntary attention should occur in accordance with the age peculiarities of children, by linking them with each other close and more distant goals. For example, the most distant motivation to become useful to society, a person) should contact the closest motive : to successfully advance to the next grade. Last motive, in turn, should contact the nearest motive is to get a high assessment of teachers.
Attention of the younger schoolboy less than that of an adult, the distribution of attention is weaker. Junior schoolboy cannot allocate attention between different types of work, for example, between their reading and listening to his friend.
Students of the first grade of a small resistance attention that is related to the age of the weakness of the braking process. Sustainability focus first graders can save for 30-35 minutes. But the students of 3 classes can save attention continuously during the lesson. But it is important to periodically change the type of work to stop the onset of fatigue.
Younger students will also do not know how to quickly switch their focus from one object to another. But by the end of primary school this property attention is being improved.
Individual peculiarities of a person younger students influence the nature of the attention. So, in children сангвинического temperament seeming inattention is manifested in excessive activity. Sanguine agile, непоседлив, talking, but his answers on the lessons show that it works with the class.
Phlegmatic and melancholic passive, sluggish, seem inattentive. But they really focused on the subject of the lesson, as evidenced by their responses to the questions of the teachers.
Some children are inattentive. The reasons vary: some laziness of thought, the other - the lack of a serious attitude to the teaching of third - increased excitability of Central nervous system and other
During the elementary school age regulatory impact of higher cortical centers are being gradually improved. As a result of this happening and significant changes in the characteristics of the attention, there is an intensive development of all its properties: especially sharply (2 times) increases the amount of attention, increasing its sustainability, develop the skills of switching and distribution. However, only 9-10 years, children become capable enough to maintain a long and execute arbitrary program of action.
Well-developed properties attention and its organization are the immediate determinants of the success of learning in primary school age. As a rule, successful pupils are the best indicators of the development of attention. The special studies show that various properties of attention have distinct contribution to the success of learning in different subjects. So, when we are learning math leading role belongs to the terms of attention; success of mastering of the Russian language is connected with the accuracy of the allocation of attention, and learning to read with resistance attention. This conclusion is developing various properties attention, you can improve academic performance of students at different academic subjects.
The difficulty, however, is that the various properties of the attention amenable to development in differing degrees. The least susceptible to the influence of the volume of attention, it is unique, at the same time, the properties of the distribution and sustainability can be and need to be trained to prevent their spontaneous development.
The success of the training of attention is largely determined individually-typological features, in particular the properties of the higher nervous activity. Established that different combinations of properties of the nervous system may promote or hinder the optimum development of the characteristics of attention. In particular, people with a strong and mobile nervous system are sound, easily distributable and switched attention. For persons with inert and weak nervous system is more usually unstable, poorly allocated and switched attention. With the combination of inertia and force the sustainability indicators are rising, properties switching and distribution reach of the average efficiency. Thus, it is necessary to consider that individually-typological peculiarities of every child to train his attention only within certain limits. However, the relatively weak development of the properties of attention is not a factor fatal negligence, since the decisive role in the successful implementation of any activity belongs to the organization's attention, i.e. the skills to manage their own care, the ability to maintain, flexible operate its properties depending on the specifics of the activity performed.
Due to the peculiarities of its work, the psychologist can every day, at different lessons and diverse natural situations observe the behavior of the children, the nature of their academic and extracurricular activities. As a result, he has the opportunity to get rather a complete, holistic view of attention of schoolchildren.
Along with the method of observation psychologist can use and a number of other methods for diagnostics of pupils ' attention. These techniques are built on the learning material, and are close to the conditions of real school. Their use in the classroom allows tracing the dynamics in the formation of students ' attention (for example, during one quarter of the curriculum or academic year). Moreover, these techniques when used systematically, can act as effective enough attention training.
However, talking about random attention as a specific higher mental function, resulting in the ability to control, regulate the progress of the activity and its results, we must raise the question of a special work on the development of attention in children. Educational activity as a leading primary school age and therefore implements specific to this age task development, in the best works on the formation of the full-time attention of children. However, the implementation requires some initial level of voluntary attention. Its deficiency is often leads to failure of the pupils in the teaching, which entails the necessity of special psychological and pedagogical development work in this direction. In this regard, we can highlight certain kinds of activities, which have higher requirements as to the specific properties of attention, and to the level of voluntary attention in General. These include special tasks, exercises, games, which can be used in the classroom. Their systematic application helps to improve the effectiveness of psychological and pedagogical work on the development of attention of children of primary school age.