Psychiatry (psyche «soul», iatreia treatment) - the area of clinical medicine studying pathology, etiology, pathogenesis psyche; diagnostics, prevention of mental illness; the types of organization of psychiatric care, examination; the social structure and the legal situation of mental patients.
The demand for psychiatry remains high, which is connected with presence of people in need of psychiatric care. According to the world health organization (who), by the beginning of the 90-ies of the twentieth century on Earth suffered from diseases and disorders of about 500 million people. Of them neurosis - 155 million, mental retardation 120 million, disorder, depressive type - 100 million, severe mental illness - 52 million dementia 16 million
Among clinical medical disciplines psychiatry is the most social of the subject, research methodology and practical actions. Its object is a person, in the profound connection between the biological, psychological, spiritual and social parties.
Medicine in ancient times, not only the number of diagnosed mental disorders (epilepsy, depression, mania, hysteria and others), but uses a variety of natural methods of treatment of these diseases (bloodletting, vomiting, laxative, massage, baths, gymnastics, labour and others).
Humane treatment for mentally ill and its evolution is largely due to the understanding of mental illness. Mental patients according to their statements and conduct people an idea of how possessed by an evil spirit or as the prophets, the saints, the blessed. Depended on the fate of the patient: «saints» are revered of «obsessed» cast out evil spirits, and sometimes destroyed them.
Its positive role in the formation of humane treatment for mentally ill played Islam. In accordance with Islam, «abnormal» were published by the will of Allah, and his will should be respected. Arab doctors borrowed progressive views of the ancient Greeks and Romans on the causes of mental disorders and adhere to them in practice. The Arabs built the first shelters for the mentally ill.
In Western Europe the ratio of the mentally ill in the middle ages was ambiguous. The persecution of witches and sorcerers, most of which, undoubtedly suffered mental disturbances, подогревалось religious fanaticism. In the Epistle of Pope innocent VIII (1484 the) in the writings of Luther, one of the founders of Protestantism, and other active adherents of Christianity was the main thought of that insane damaged in mind the devil, the devil. Even when doctors attribute the mentally ill natural causes, it was because he considered Luther, «they don't understand to what extent is mighty and powerful features. In Russia, the attitude towards mentally ill was not so severe. They regretted, called «possessed by the devil», and «God punished». In IX-X centuries in Кииевском state there was a special charity organization «the poor, the strange and poor people». By tithing princely revenues were opened in the cities of orphan, hostels houses, hospitals, «странноприемницы».