In pedagogical, psychological, and often technical literature can be found the discussion can the training creativity. Widely known attempts to teach the activities of the inventor. L. A. Китиев-Smyk argues that the creative oeuvre exist algorithms for search, as in any other activity . However, according to the majority of psychologists, such statement of a question does not make sense, for in the very definition of creative activity include its non-algorithmic character. But if a direct teaching creativity is impossible, it is quite possible indirect influence on it by creating conditions that promote or hinder the creative activity.
Conditions or factors affecting the course of creative activity, there are two types of situational and personal. Personal factors are resistant properties, personality traits or character of a man that can influence the condition caused by a given situation. An example is a feature as anxiety.
To situational factors, negatively influencing on human creativity, include a time limit; stress; high anxiety; the desire to quickly find a solution; too strong or too weak motivation; the presence of a fixed installation on concrete way of the decision; lack of self-confidence caused by previous failures; fear; increased self-censorship, way of presenting the conditions of the problem, provoking the wrong path decisions, and other
Personality factors having negative influence on the creative process, refer conformism (collaborate); self-doubt (often accompanied by low self-esteem), and too strong confidence (self-confidence); emotional upset and sustainable dominance of negative emotions; lack of risk appetite; the dominance of motivation avoidance of failure on motivation, desire to succeed; strong mechanisms of personality protection; high anxiety as a personality trait and a number of other . So, as a result of research it was revealed that the destructive impact of situational anxiety on the productivity of creative activities, are detected at high intensity trouble at all stages of the creative process and the lack of expressiveness or no alarms on the decision-making stage in .
Numerous studies that began with a description of the phases of the creative act, show the critical role of unconscious processes in finding creative solutions. So many of these factors are associated with the strengthening of the barriers between the conscious and the unconscious. So, anxiety and self-doubt make people suppress coming from the subconscious clues, fearing that they will irony or ridicule other people.
Among the personal traits that are conducive to creative thinking, are the following: self-confidence; the emotions of joy and even a certain proportion of aggression; the risk appetite; absence of fear seem strange and unusual; the lack of conformity; well-developed sense of humor; availability of rich in content subconscious (sees a variety of on the content of dreams, has subthreshold sensitivity, experiencing phenomena synesthesia etc); the love of fantasising and construction plans for the future, etc.
It should also be noted that one often sees the creative personalities childishness, reaching a infantilism. B. N. Zinchenko in connection with this formula leads P. A. Florensky that the secret to creativity in the preservation of youth and the secret of genius in the preservation of childhood for life. Indeed, childhood is сензитивный period for creativity. At this time, the process of the creation of man's image of the world is most rapidly. Still L. N. Tolstoy noted that most of what he learned in life, came in the first four years. These observations are confirmed by modern empirical studies. If to take into account evidence that any image, even the image of perception, based on the principle of counter assimilation hypothesis, originally built in a complete image of the world, it becomes clear how big should be creative tension of the first months and years of life, to have somewhere to four years was basically completed construction of the image of the world, which later made far less fundamental and principal add and amendments.
Answering the question why he had to make a great discovery, A. Einstein called as one of the reasons for their relatively slow development, so it is in a rather respectable age, still worried about the so-called "children's questions". The question, which started thinking, which led to the discovery of the principle of relativity, it sounds really almost childishly: that will see the observer, if the light source is removed from it with the speed of light? At the initial stage of development the child is a being completely unconscious. This is the only time in a person's life, when really there are absolutely no barriers between the conscious and the unconscious and no, respectively, are absolutely no restrictions for free creativity .
Consider what factors contribute to creative thinking.
- The desire to Express themselves and be considerable.
Strong motivation in any activity. What is called interest or focus on solution of the important task for himself. We begin to think, when we want something or doesn't want. If there is a clear answer to the question: "Why do I need this?" it will all go. O. M. Razumnikova calls this factor is the ratio between internal and external motivation» .
Innate abilities. The talent.
A psychological setting to work and willpower.
Hard work. Purposefulness. The ability to focus on a problem. Perseverance. The ability to bring the case to the end. So, for example, English microbiologist А.Флеминг more than 20 years sought antibacterial substance and found the desired type of mold, which allocates penicillin, and was awarded the Nobel prize.
Is belief in success, even confidence: «How do I decide? Decide». Some psychologists say that faith is first takes hold of the consciousness, then goes into the subconscious, and then materializes, implemented activities. Like it or not, but "aimed at", and believes that his success is looking for and will not miss the chance, and not trusting in yourself the chance simply will not notice, and even if noticed, would be afraid to immediately use them, and then, as a rule, already too late. Success comes from activity, but we must not lose sight and good luck.
- Stimulation of thinking:
A) internal ? самонастрой, desire, debt, auto-training, self-hypnosis;
B) foreign ? beliefs, orders, threats. It is difficult, of course, refer to the factors contributing to the shaping of creative thinking, but stimulator of it can serve.
Selection of an optimum mode of work of the brain. So N. P. Bekhtereva believes that the level of activation of different areas of the brain can be changed easily in connection with necessity.
- Knowledge of techniques to solve problems.
- Erudition. Breadth and depth of knowledge, theoretical and practical. It is especially important to know the laws.
- Developed, managed memory and attention.
- Doubt. But not relaxing doubt, and a critical attitude towards yourself. Ability to view the results of your labor as created by another person, open-minded, «from the side».
- Compliance with the rules of mental hygiene. Periodic rest, switching to another job, peace of mind, a sense of security. There are innate protective mechanisms of the brain, protecting it from emotional breakdowns, and congestion. But bring themselves to their entry unwise.
- Computer programs. For example: software product «Изобретающая machine», developed тризовцами, which provides generalized and systematized the creative experience of many generations of inventors in various fields of knowledge, переложенный on the language of the computer. Sit down at the computer and изобретай.
- Communication with talented and creative personalities.
- Solitary meditation.
- Warm, friendly attitude of the surrounding people, in particular parents, the child and his ideas.
Creative atmosphere of continuous quest in the team, in the family, at school.
As not seem strange - ability to draw.
- Knowledge of and compliance with the rules of productive work.
Here are the factors hindering the development of the creative thinking.
A painful condition of the person.
Strain, a deadly tiredness - mental, emotional, mental and (or) physical.
Нетворческий climate in the collective. Monotony and оглупляющая monotonous work. During the formation of the collective violated the principle of compatibility people ? psychological, moral, intellectual. Conflict, anger, low level of morale in the team, a very big difference in worldviews and cultural development of people working in the same team. People uncomfortable, they humbled themselves, they disappeared incentives to do and think.
Subjective reasons are:
The absence of the habit of thinking. Too lazy to think, laziness decide lazy to write a good idea, too lazy to embody the idea.
Absence of ability to solve problems. Not knowing that there are tricks and techniques to help you solve problems.
The lack of ability to see the problem.
Lack of personal interest.
Insignificancy of problems.
The weak will. The inability to bring the case to the end. Inability to make myself.
Stereotypes of thinking (for example, «this problem is not solved»).
Lack of information or disorder ideas.
Attention span, dispersion .
The systematic use of the emotional sphere is the main condition for the formation of creative thinking of students. To contribute to the realization of creative potential of a child, an adult must contribute to its emotional expression. It is necessary to create such conditions in which the child is living, acknowledges and expresses different emotional States. Emotions should not reviewed, and lived. The adoption and maintenance of an adult (teacher, parent) all emotional reactions and conditions of children is the main psychological condition of development of creative thinking of the children. E. L. Yakovlev believes that the main principle of creative thinking is the principle of transformation of cognitive content in emotional. This principle means that for the formation of creative thinking from the child to be systematically pay to own emotional experience.
Another necessary condition for the formation of creative thinking is compliance with the principles of humanistic psychology ? безоценочности, acceptance, security, support. These principles should be respected in the interaction between children and adults. Practically, this means that positively supported and approved by all the answers of the student. Unlike regular training, where the errors are corrected, the formation of creative thinking the child is «right to be wrong». This actually means that there are no errors at all. Observance of these principles means that between adults and children must be an atmosphere of mutual trust.
The third necessary condition of forming of creative thinking is the observance of the principles of developing education ? the number of questions, Dialogic, individualization .
So, the question is can the training of creative thinking discussed in pedagogical and psychological literature. It is known that direct teaching creative thinking is impossible. But if a direct teaching creativity is impossible, it is quite possible indirect influence on it by creating conditions that promote or hinder the creative activity. Conditions or factors affecting the course of creative activity, there are two types of situational and personal. Numerous studies that began with a description of the phases of the creative act, show the critical role of unconscious processes in finding creative solutions. So many factors are associated with the strengthening of the barriers between the conscious and the unconscious.