The first who originally applied to professional activity of the considered range of data problems in gender terms, was an American specialist Розабес Kanter.
You entered it the notion of a "glass ceiling" has a list of typical underlying causes, is the most widespread phenomenon that is taking place in many countries:
It is believed that women managers weaker "professional capital, or she knows less and less able. This stereotype can be refuted by many specific examples, but despite this, he has a place;
There is an opinion that "a good Manager" is, first of all, the man, not the woman, because she is unfit for performing the role of leader. Then again life is full of examples of what not every man is the head have leadership qualities.
The so-called "problem of male and female experience." Reason is that the woman worse gaining experience and usually freezes up and does not develop in office.
The procedure of choice - if this position is released, the more preferred candidates are men. There is a widespread opinion that women are more "hamper" the chores and caring than men.
At an enterprise, organization, institution has a tacit classification of posts with the division into "male" and "female". Therefore, hiring and promotions are associated with the implicit system.
Career problems are compounded when faced different cultures, with different principles of masculinity and femininity. These enterprises have attracted attention in connection with complaints of workers - both men and women, - the manifestation of the "official discrimination".
In the tradition of building a career in Russia, consider the following questions, including factors influencing the career of men and women, the motivation of the men and women striving to achieve the highest levels in the management, internal and external barriers to career advancement both sexes, the typical «female» barriers in building a career.
According to a study conducted in 2010 public organization «Committee 20» for personnel policy, showed that more than half of respondents (61%) believe that women must participate in company management. According to the participants of the in-depth interviews, the introduction of several women in the Board of the company may make management more effective through better «balance in the team.» According to many studies conducted worldwide on this topic, companies, boards of Directors which is attended by at least three women have a much higher rates of efficiency in all aspects. And note that Russia is here not the last place. On participation of women in the boards of Directors of companies, we are somewhere in the middle of the list, ahead of many developed countries, such as Austria, the Netherlands or Japan. However, despite the declared acknowledgement of the importance of women in the management of the company, in the role of their immediate supervisor 40% of respondents would prefer to see the man, and only 4% - woman. For more than half of respondents gender of the head does not matter.
Respondents also agreed that the main motives of building a career, you should consider psychological factors rather than material. Among them - the desire for freedom and independence in the professional plan (91%) or a desire for self-realization (91%) and professional growth (91%). It is interesting to note that women more often than men, motivated by the desire to realize their leadership qualities and meet your business ambitions (76% vs. 60%) .
The women are less than men rely on anyone's help in building a career. 55 % of the male respondents mentioned lack of ties and patronage as a barrier for professional growth. For women, this is not a key factor - it was noted by only 35% of the female respondents. One of the main external barriers to build a career on the results of the study recognized the refusal of the leaders in the promotion. The gender stereotypes and prejudice of more frequent in Russian than in foreign companies (24% vs. 5%).
The main internal barrier to career women is a private system of values of a woman-leader, where the family is more important than work. 42 % of female respondents believe that their destiny is family, and work is secondary, yet 40 % believe equally important implementation both at work and in the family. The «internal pressure» gender stereotypes often women experience working in Russian companies (27% vs. 7% in foreign companies). In-depth interviews confirmed that in many cases the desire to make a career in the family, but not at work» quite often stops the woman on the way (there have been cases when women are refused from the proposed higher position) [36, P.77].
The participants of the survey conducted V.G. Gorchakova, largely share the stereotypes of a woman-leader, existing in Russian society. In particular, 45 % believe that a woman's career in business is not compatible with a full family life, 36 % believe that the woman loses her womanhood with the active career building, 31 % of the respondents perceive a woman-leader more an exception than a rule. And again the employees of the large foreign companies rarely shared these views in comparison with employees of Russian companies [13, P.73].
The majority of respondents (72%) consciously and voluntarily moved ahead on a career ladder, and only 28% of respondents career was a forced step. Interestingly, the share of foreign companies targeted careerists higher (81%) compared with Russia (68%). respondents agreed that the key factors for career growth are the personal qualities of the person, and external factors play a minor role (support environment - 35%, the presence of a mentor - 45%).
According to researchers, it is gender stereotypes, despite the General positive changes in the business culture of Russia, continues to hinder the systematic career development specialists in our country.
To date, there are relatively few studies regarding the limitations provided by the traditional male role. Psychologists have begun to study the female role after the public attention was drawn feminist movement to a lower social status of women. The last few years male role is the increasing attention of researchers [23, S.112].
The structure of the role of norms of men consists of three factors. The first related to the expectations that men are gaining status and respect of other (norm status). The second factor, the rate of hardness, reflects the expectation of men, mental, emotional and physical toughness. The third factor is the expectation that a man should avoid stereotypically female occupations and activities (norm антиженственности).
Norm success (status) - gender stereotype stating that the social value of man is determined by the size of its earnings and success at work. This provision is a number of restrictions for men. First, most men are not capable of 100% to be consistent with, what have low self-esteem. Media traditional masculinity never knows measures and may not enjoy what he has. He must constantly increasing the volume and times of operation, and this lifestyle is often leads to the emergence of stress-related physiological and psychological symptoms. Men tend to choose an occupation and career depending on how good it is to be paid. Financial pressures are particularly burdened by the men whose wives stay at home and do not work. If several people depend on you economically, it is seriously weighs on the psyche. Point of view is that the primary duty of the men in the family regularly bring great salary, adversely affects the performance of their parental functions, so as to meet those expectations, a man should spend all his time to the work.
Men are less likely than women are passive in planning a business career, more live for today and less could look to the future. According to C. D. Gorchakova, only 20 % of women in our country have tended to professional careers.
Men are more likely to change their professional careers than women, since the latter does not leave attempts to achieve promotion and is not prepared to evaluate their own professional goals and achievements. I think there is also another reason - the greater tendency of men to risk. Fear of success is possible in men, when the kind of activity does not match their gender role. Tomatoes, and To claim that the man at the nursing school will also avoid success. C. pike and C. Кэйхилл repeated the experiment M. Horner with "John" and "Ann" the doctors and found that men are more afraid of success than their female colleagues. Fear of success may appear to men also in cases when they do not want to provoke envy their colleagues, to break the friendly relations with them [15, P.98].
Men organize their professional career significantly earlier than women. As shown by D. Levinson, most men have completed their vocational apprenticeship and fully attained the status of maturity in the sphere of labour for the 30th anniversary. The women did not cease to be enrolled as newcomers in the professional world until middle age. R. Дроэдж even found most of the women who started their career after 20 years, "the period of apprenticeship lasted for up to 40 years later. But even those women who, like men, have achieved professional maturity up to 30 years, there was a switch of interest achieve professional success to receive satisfaction in personal relationships. Here is the difference between men and women, as for the last career remains a major challenge and after 30 years [23, P.105].
Career women in General is completely different from the career of men. In conditions of modern family and professional structures of the advancement of women in the service prevents the need to care for children. Women with children face significant disadvantages in terms of career. Age 25-35 years, for a professional career is critical. However, this is the age a woman most of all risks at the time of exit from the workforce, if she wants to give birth and raise a child. Women, who have children do not always have the opportunity to receive necessary professional skills and promotion. Even if a young mother returns to work after just a few months after the birth of a child, heads-men often believe that such a woman is not able to work in full force and perform operational tasks, requiring considerable time, and stops pushing her up the ladder.
M. Century Safonov believes that the personal traits of successful career women are sociability, social courage, prudence, emotional restraint, a high level of intelligence, good self-control. Most indicators of this group of women is approaching the average values of the male sample, that indicates their masculinity. Furthermore, most women who succeed in a career, have higher education, and one - third degree [38, P.64].
In Russia among top managers of enterprises of industry, women - 11%, agriculture - 8%, construction - 1%. In the industry in senior positions in 1985 was 4,5% (all women), and men 9% (all men). In the early 1990s, the share of women - heads of enterprises and organizations did not exceed on branches of 6-9%. At the same time in the literature devoted to the analysis of the problems of women's employment, appears almost one and the same figure for women professionals working in senior positions, represent 60%. With the restructuring process of exclusion of women from decision-making areas and management strengthened. The percentage of women among top managers of enterprises compared with the 1985 fell from 11 to 5.6%.
According to the Committee of labour and employment, Government of Moscow, two-thirds of all unemployed Muscovites in 2005 were women, mostly aged 30 to 45 years. More than half of them have higher education, and about 30% - secondary special. More than a third of all unemployed women have minor children. As the statistics shows, the current unemployed most often dismissed on the initiative of the administration or left work voluntarily [35, P.26].
A coveted job receive only 8% of respondents. The opportunity to retrain, to find another subject for their competitiveness have another 16% of the respondents. According to the Committee of labour and employment, the core offered for retraining are specialty accountants, drivers, user's computer, the seller-cashier, Secretary-referent. We can assume that, even acquiring a new profession and wages, women feel uncomfortable, because losing the old social status and communication environment. The most popular form of employment is to find a job through friends and acquaintances (43,4%). On the second place on the frequency of treatment - employment by newspaper advertisements (27,0%). The services of the employment service are 22,2% of respondents [36, C. 79].
For modern women is characterized by interdependence, they acquire their own individuality in social relations. In business conversations men concentrate on the tasks, the women on the relationship between people; talk of men more informative, women's more important to get feedback and support in communication. Women are better interpret the emotions of other people. Thus, the sensitivity of women to the signals of non-verbal communication helps explain their greater emotional responsiveness in sad and happy situations.
Men are more likely to social dominate in the society. Characteristic of men style of communication enhances their credibility. Speaking as leaders in situations where no ill distribution of roles, men are prone to authoritarian style, and women to a democratic regime. Men are much easier to give prescriptive, problem-oriented management style, and women - style social leaders, creating a «team spirit». Men give importance to victory, superiority and domination of others. Men's style of communication issues the care of independence, and a female of mutual dependence. Men are more likely to actions, characteristic for people with authority, " they say with the pressure, interrupt interlocutor, relate his hands, harder look you in the eyes, rarely smiling. Women prefer a less direct ways to influence the interlocutor, the relevant women's understanding of relations between people - they are smaller interrupt, more considerate and polite, less self-confident.