There are many parameters that distinguish one person from another, but one of the significant factors are gender differences. Most people believe that gender differences in behavior and social roles are caused by biological differences between the sexes.
Gender (Gender) in psychology understand how socio-biological characteristic by which people give a definition of the notions of «male» and «female». Because gender (sex) is a biological category, social psychologists often refer to the gender differences, which biologically justified, as «sex» [6, P.9].
In English, the word "gender" refers to the generation that with Paul has nothing to do. Contrary to popular perception, the word "gender" was borrowed from the grammar and introduced in behavior science not American feminists, and in 1955 it was an outstanding sexologist John Mani. He is considered the first who introduced the concept of gender, gender identity, gender role to describe the inner state of a person in terms of being a man or a woman. By combining existing scarce data with the results of their clinical studies, Mani and his colleagues began to develop a model of process of formation of being male or female or acquisition qualities typical for both sexes.
Thus, the term «gender» was included in the scientific context, first of all, to emphasize not the natural and the socio-cultural core of sexual differences.
One of the most respected sociologists modernity Englishman Anthony Giddens explains that «gender» is not the physical differences between men and women, and socio-generated features of masculinity and femininity. Gender, according to him, means, first of all, social expectations of behaviour, рассматривающегося as appropriate for men and women [44, P.31].
For an explanation of many gender differences to be found in no hormones and chromosomes, and in social norms who subscribed to us different types of behavior, attitudes, and interests in accordance with the biological sex. Sets norms that contain generalized information about the qualities peculiar to each of the sexes, called sexual or gender roles [5, C. 88].
The notion that much of our behavior is directly dependent on social norms and social context, has long been accepted science. Although the term «gender» (social floor, as a product of culture) appeared relatively recently (in 1975), however, in science and previously existed development, ideas, that we can be attributed to this field of psychology.
In the history of gender psychology can be divided into 5 stages: 1) development of relevant ideas in the field of philosophy (from ancient times to the end of XIX century); 2) the formation of the subject and sections of bidding psychology (the end of XIX - beginning of XX century); 3) «фрейдовский period», associated with the name 3. Freud [50, C. 42]. and psychoanalysis (beginning of XX century - 1930s); 4) the beginning of an extensive experimental studies and the emergence of the first theories (1950-1980-s); 5) the rapid development of gender psychology: a burst of experimental studies, theoretical interpretation of the empirical evidence, adaptation of known methods and techniques to study the tender mainstreaming and creation of specific tender procedures (since the 1990s-present). In science there are several different stages (the end of XIX - beginning of XX century; 1920-1930s; 1960-1980-s; since the 1990s), we consider them in parallel with international [3, P.10].
P. E. Astafiev allocates time as an important factor of mental life (speed shift mental acts and events). According to this factor differ psychological types of men and women. Women are more quick mental pace, men - slow. These peculiarities of the mental rhythm determine the sex differences, which are manifested in the following figures [18, С.188]. For women is characterized by:
the greater development of the unconscious sphere;
) such mental processes as attention span, specific, and practical thinking, the propensity to synthetic thinking, less arbitrary associations, unity and emotional performances;
) passivity of feelings, emotions, mood instability, cheerfulness, jealousy.
) weakness of will and weak control over the emotions;
) easy excitability;
) in speech and communication - and expressiveness of movements, facial expressions, voice; talkativeness and a tendency to repeat the speech;
the greater vanity (evident in the coquetry, propensity to jewelry);
the failure to the original creativity (this explains the lack of success in science and art, but women can be good promoters of science and imitators in art);
) yielding to the influence of others;
success as Actresses and singers (explained emotional expressiveness);
the failure to political activity.
Thus, the woman is not to create, but to be the hope of the company - feminine woman. Accordingly men are peculiar to the opposite characteristics: analytical thinking, ability to focus, strong will, a brief speech, etc [4, P.17].
Feature of male superiority in perception, conceptual thinking. They perceive events, things dismembered and consistently, thinking and feeling separated from each other. Women are perceived surrounding together, vaguely thinking and feelings are inextricably linked and are in the form of «генид» (something vague, elusive and vague, as early childhood, or ускользнувшая idea during a call). Sensitivity (feelings) among men than among women, including pain.
, Гейманс identifies the following gender differences:
Differences between women and men are statistical in nature - in the form of trends, the specific man and a woman may not correspond to those trends.
Women began to study very actively, but it is necessary to study separately the psychology of men.
Important gender researcher. Men (for example, 'clock Lombroso) underestimate the complexity of the female psyche, and women (HP Мархольм, R. Мейредер) exaggerate it.
Women have discovered a smaller volume of consciousness. Because hysteria is more common in women, and it has narrowed consciousness, the volume of the consciousness in women less than men. Men can talk and deal with the case, a woman can do only one thing (here, apparently, the distribution of attention). Woman reflects and is not aware of his sensations (for example, fatigue while walking).
Suggestibility is not associated with gender. More are suggestible and give in to others ' influence emotional women and emotional men compared with неэмоциональными representatives of both sexes (this is a very important observation, which is obtained in the study by Геймансом: the study of sex differences should not forget about the other typologies of subjects - in particular, about the differences in temperament) [35, P.26].
Emotion for women is their main difference from men. Girls more often than boys, give aesthetic evaluation of new subjects, and the boys are interested in their purpose. Girls are more emotionally react to praise and blame, they are easier to move, cause laughter and tears (although Lombroso thought not to be confused manifestation of suffering with the suffering). Mental illness in connection with the emotional causes are much more frequent in women (% of cases)than men. Especially it concerns the affect of fear. Women are emotional in dispute and biased. Suicide from fear of impending punishment more common in women than men (49% and 19% respectively). Women are more sensitive to the irony and mockery, even if it's good-natured banter of friends. Religious feelings are also more pronounced in women. Women are more sensitive to beauty, but worst of men are able to describe their impressions.
Women are more accepting, but worse observe that due to their less interest (and even disgust, was found in a study of American College students) to certain tasks. Women show a thin observation only in what interests them, In General, some things are more accepting of women, other men. Women have more stringent selection of material under the simultaneous presentation.
Best memory in women. But should take into account the degree of development of memory. A higher percentage of exceptional memory was found in men, and good and bad in women. Lack of interest reduces memory women (for example, the rules of spelling, arithmetic, rail guides and historical dates).
Women Association adjacency prevail over associations similarities. Were also received contradictory information: some of them say that men prefer Association of parts to the whole, and women from the whole to the part subject to the quality, but at the same time were obtained opposite results indicate that men are more likely to sound associations from the whole to the parts of the object to the action, and women from the part to the whole.
Idea and imagination. In women - more lively imagination because of their greater emotional. They have a more distinct and colorful images. They tend to be spontaneous hallucinations (especially for Russian and Brazilian women compared with англичанками). Women are better than men imagine upcoming conversations and disputes with the interlocutor in detail. They tend to exaggerate their suffering, fears, hopes, and disappointments.
When comparing the mental abilities of men and women important evaluation criteria:
the criterion of the ability to pursue higher education.
the criterion of the highest achievements in the field of science, technology and art.
the criterion of originality.
the criterion of learning.
the criterion of interest to the task.
The speech. Girls begin to speak before the boys all my life women talk more than men, and in old age become silent and avaricious on words. They provide more accurate and clear description, so judges and doctors prefer to ask for explanations women [6, C. 21].
In 1982, Carol Gilligan argued that women differ from men in their attitude towards morality, accepted in society. One reason, but their views are not less Mature. For women, the importance of relationships with people, and the standards they consider in this regard. Men are considered moral judgments from the position of adopted laws and impartiality. They are more индивидуалистичны that corresponds to the individualistic culture of the United States, so these sex differences are encouraged by society.
In domestic science in the late 1960s was more or less favorable atmosphere for the development of gender mainstreaming. The great merit here belongs to LTD Ананьеву Creator лениградско Petersburg school psychologists. Were allocated to the global differences of women and men: more early maturation first, greater stability of the female body and psyche, the most typical of women and originality of men.
A group of scientists under the direction of E. S. Чугуновой explored the personal characteristics of engineers (including managers) of different sex and has determined the difference of personality's structures of men and women. For men were typical:
- high creative productivity and economic efficiency;
- professional dominance and self-esteem;
- motivation associated with a sense of duty and a focus on business, independent choice of a profession.
The structure of women's identity was characterized by the following factors:
- satisfaction of official position and work, relationships with colleagues and leaders;
- motivation on relationships, career choice under the influence of others;
- high technical intellect.
With these global factors were associated with other characteristics that are determined the originality of personal portraits of men and women.
The study t.v.s Бендас were installed sex differences student leaders of groups of different levels of organization [5, S.89]. For men leaders were typical:
- highly organized groups - emotional stability, high level of pretensions in the area of relationships;
- in low-organized - small expressiveness and low academic performance;
- in среднеорганизованных - high performance and low level of claims in the area of relationships.
- highly organized groups - rigidity of communication, conformity, low self-control;
- in низкоорганизованных calm, self-confidence, emotional stability, good self-control, expressiveness, high self-esteem, mismatching claim leadership and position of the official structure of the group;
- medium-organized - lability of communication, emotional instability and anxiety with good self-control, low expressiveness and conformity.
Especially significant was the presence of additionality for women's leadership (this role is assumed by women when men are not sought) and their less successful than men (sometimes mean results of the women spoke about at the expense of high emotional costs, if such costs were not, the results were very low).
From 1990 to the present time, scientists have begun to more subtle development of gender mainstreaming. Became known areas in which the most frequently found sex differences (in particular, the dominance of men in the visual-spatial abilities). These checks are in different cultures. Searching for reasons empirical facts. Thus, finally begun to take account of «the second half of the human experience is the female.
Gender roles are determined by the Association, have extremely important consequences in the lives of men and women. This «key States», providing a major impact on the interaction and interconnection between individuals with other people. They look to the men and women of certain places in the social structure, determining their status. Therefore, gender roles form the basic framework within which men and women identify, formulate their goals and prepare for life. In addition, gender roles are the main source of social inequality. Just as the company sets the inequality based on membership of a particular racial or ethnic group, it institutionalizes inequality on the grounds of gender.
It is not surprising that gender differences have a significant impact on professional self-determination and the total long-term planning of life.
As noted by A. Conrad with co-authors (A. Konrad et al., 2000), women prefer to work with people and see the quality of industrial relations as one of the main factors of choice of profession and men give the basic meaning of freedom and autonomy activities.
O. Century Mitina and V. F. Petrenko studied professional preferences of Russian and American women. The most preferable for those, and for other opportunities were to have higher education or profession with high skills requirements. On the second place of the girls was a desire to work in a state institution, and the American desire to dedicate his life to the professional career. The Americans were expressed and the desire to work as a Manager of an enterprise, organization, institution, or have their own business.
Thus, during the existence of the theories about interpersonal relations, scientists interested differences between men and women, when it says that the gender differences are not only at the physiological level, differ personal characteristics, peculiarities of emotional response and communicative peculiarities. As a consequence of men and women differ in the choice of professional preferences.