In the course of professional activities of man constantly makes a choice in favor of a certain situation, puts some priorities.
When hiring a person poses a certain goal. But the organization, taking it to work, also pursues certain goals. Therefore нанимающемуся need to realistically assess their business skills, to correlate them with the requirements set forth by the organization of its work. On this depends the success throughout a person's career [46, С.384].
Career planning worker is an organization of its advancement through the stages of official and professional growth, to help him develop and implement professional knowledge and skills in the interests of the company.
Due to the natural uniqueness of every human being in those situations in which he gets and how he reacts to these situations can be innumerable different careers.
But decided to allocate certain types of career, more or less fit the criteria of universality and able to describe most of the trajectories of motion in the company.
The aim of career you cannot name a sphere of activity, a job, position, place on the ladder. It has a deeper meaning. Career goals are manifested in the reason that people would like to have this particular work, take a rung on the ladder posts [45, P.139].
Historically, the idea of a career connected with the promotion of employee career organization in the framework of that kind of activity, which was elected in the beginning of working life. However, life is largely changed that model. Increasing competition, the desire to reduce production costs more than the competitors, information technology and particular attention to the consumer led to reduction of the role of such classical phenomena as «correct placement» and «hierarchical structure». Organization removed the traditional «rungs of the career ladder» and focused on the optimal use of their own «human resources».
The meaning of the term «career» is changing rapidly. In the traditional framework under the career is understood as the promotion of employee's career organization within the scope of its professional activities. As a rule, people stopped the choice on any profession, sometimes after youth «immature» oscillations. After that, they tried to find an organization in which their work would be developed to the full extent. Organization of the answer was to provide them with the opportunity for career growth. As in the choice of profession and in the selection of a particular company, people have tried to do so that they had no more to return to this subject throughout the rest of your life. Career employee was seen as a «ladder» or «path», «the road» [49, C. 658].
Career trajectory of their movement - man builds himself, in accordance with the characteristics of intra - and in неорганизационной reality and the main thing - with its own goals, desires and attitudes.
Career growth - the knowledge, skills and experience. Professional career can go through specialization (deepening of the one selected in the beginning of their professional career, the line of motion) or транспрофессионализации (mastering of other areas of human experience, associated rather with the expansion of the tools and fields of activities [37 P.184].
Career is a subjective conscious judgments worker of their employment future expected path expression and satisfaction labour. This translational promotion on a service ladder, changing skills, abilities, qualification opportunities and rewards associated with the activities of the employees. Human life outside of work has a significant impact on the careers is part of his career. This progress on one chosen path activities.
In other words, a career is individually informed position and behavior related to work experience and activities throughout the working life of man [24, C. 192].
Process the essence of career reflected in most of this definition as eloquent of used terms movement, promotion, growth, and is also confirmed by the etymology of the word career (which in Italian means running).
So under the career understand the active promotion of rights to acquire and improve their way of life, which ensures its stability in the stream of social life career interpreted as movement of the person in the space of organizational positions involving consecutive change of functions status, socio - economic status. That is the career of the process of movement on a way of mastering by certain values, benefits recognized in the society or organization. These are the:
ranks, levels of hierarchy;
steps of the qualification ladder and related discharges, differentiating skills and knowledge of people according to their skill level;
status ranks, reflecting the value of the employee contribution in the development of the organization (length of service years, the unique rational suggestions crucial for the organization) its position in the team;
Executive level as the most influential in the organization involved in making important decisions, the proximity to the manual);
the levels of remuneration of income (salary level and diversity of social benefits). Thus, it should be emphasized that these benefits can be considered as through the prism of the subjectivity of man, and from the point of view of its environment (organization of the professional sphere of the company), evaluated as a purely subjective in the form of самоощущений, self-assessment of achievement and supported by recognition of their environment in the form of promotions, the level of payment, etc. for Example, a person can feel the changes of their skills and knowledge, but others will perceive, see his professional growth only after he will raise the qualification rank.
Thus, a career is a process of professional growth, growth of its influence government authority, the status of the environment, the expression in his progress up the hierarchical ladder, the skill ladder, remuneration, prestige [9, С.248].
The diversity and the complexity of the phenomenon career is reflected in the diversity of its species, the diversity of its approaches to the typology. For the classification of types of career there are many different bases, indicators, criteria. Besides, there are a few basic trajectories of movement of a person within the profession or organization, that will lead to different types of career.
The environment review career is traditionally divided into professional and internal.
Professional career is characterized by the fact that a specific employee in the course of their professional activity goes through various stages of development: education, employment, professional development, support of individual abilities, finally, retirement. These stages of the individual employee can pass successively in different organizations.
Together with the professional career should allocate internal career. It covers consecutive change of stages of development of the employee within the same organization.
Intraorganizational career is implemented in three main areas:
vertical - this direction is often connected to the notion of career, as in this case, career advancement most visibly. Under vertical career literally means the ascent to the higher level of structural hierarchy;
horizontal - meaning either move to another functional area of activity or to perform a particular service roles on the stage, not having hard formal organizational structure (for example, acting as the head of the temporary task force, program etc) To the horizontal career include the expansion or complication of tasks within the occupied stage (usually adequate change of remuneration);
centripetal - the direction of the least obvious, although in many cases it is very attractive to employees. Under the centripetal career means movement to the kernel, the management of the organization. For example, invitation employee of the inaccessible to him earlier meetings, both formal and not formal; obtaining access to informal sources of information, confidential treatment, some important errands.
On the content of which occur in the process of career motion changes are the following types of career, as a domineering (growth of influence), qualification, status, monetary (the career of income).
Bossy career is linked either with the formal growing influence of the organization through moving up the hierarchy of control, or with the growth of the informal authority of the employee in the organization.
Qualification career involves professional growth, the movement of the ranks of the tariff schedule of the profession.
Status career is to increase the status of the worker in the organization, expressed or by assignment of the next rank, seniority, or honorary title for their outstanding contribution to the development of the company.
Monetary career is to improve the level of remuneration of the worker, namely: the level of compensation, the volume and quality of provided social benefits.
As the basis for the classification can be used features of the process of career development.
By the nature of the percolation distinguish between linear and nonlinear types of career. In a linear type of development is happening regularly and continuously, whereas the non-linear type describes the ongoing irregular or breakthroughs. As a special case of data types emit stagnation (stagnation, a stub), the stage of the lack of any significant changes in your career.
On a degree of stability, continuity justified division of career respectively on a stable and an unstable, discontinuous and continuous.
Possible implementation career divided into potential (personally built man labor life path based on its plans, needs, abilities, and objectives) and the real (that managed to achieve over a period of time).
The speed and sequence of passing the stages of the career ladder distinguish fast, normal суперавантюрную, adventurous, typical, consistently - crisis and other types of careers.
Building a career, an important motivation of the employee's activities. Employee motivation is always one of the most important questions of the heads of respectable companies.
The company can provide a decent wage, a solid package of social benefits and privileges that come to the position (mobile phones, personal Secretary, car etc). But all more or less successful companies are about their employees such care, and highly skilled staff, a rare specialist with extensive experience in the crisis period without work does not remain. It can convert competitors or more successful companies on the market.
However, in addition to material interests, professional people always motivated by something else. This is something for everyone and, as a rule, does not lie on the surface. People want to consciously build a career, to love, to get real results, learn, expand their power and authority to hold certain position in the social sphere.
To assess the personality features, optimization of the choice of the sphere of professional activity in the beginning of their professional career is important to consider the personality type of a person who chooses the field of activity.
Thus, successful professional career in the transforming Russian society creates conditions for increasing the level and quality of life, a change in social status and social position of individuals. In the new political, economic, social, cultural conditions on the professional career of more than affect individual quality than the objective conditions.