Formation of self-assessment depends largely on the characteristics of a particular age. P.S. Nemov in his textbook on psychology examined in detail all neoplasms, mental and cognitive features of childhood and adolescence. Psychologist notes that in childhood and adolescence actively in the process of cognitive development.
Especially noticeable in these years was the growth of the consciousness and self-consciousness of children, representing a significant expansion of the scope of the conscious and deepening of knowledge about oneself, about people, about the world. Development of self-consciousness of the child finds its expression in the change of motivation main activities: teaching, communication and labour. Former «baby» motifs, characteristic of primary school age, lose their incentive force. The place in which they arise and are secured with a new «adult» the motives that lead to reassessment of the content, aims and activities. Those activities that have previously performed a leading role, for example game begin to conquer, and to move further into the background. There are new kinds of activity, changing the hierarchy of old, begins a new stage of mental development.
From the point of view M.A. Winter, already in adolescence great emphasis is put on self-management activity, being the first control on the result or to a specified pattern, and then procedure of control, i.e. the ability to choose and selectively control any time or step in the activity. Until adolescence many children do not yet have the ability to advance planning activities, but there is a desire for self-regulation. In particular, it is shown that the interesting, intellectually exciting activities or work, motivated by considerations of prestige, adolescents may long time to keep the attention, to be able to switch or distribute it between multiple activities and maintain quite a high rate of work.
Articulating adolescence, L.I. Bozovic wrote: «during The period break down and rebuilt all the former child's relationship to the world and to himself...and evolving processes of self-consciousness and self-determination, resulting in the end, to the same position in life, with which the pupil starts its independent life».
In the transition period transformations are taking place in various areas of the psyche. Cardinal changes have to do with motivation. In the content motives are the motives, connected with the emerging worldview, with plans for future life. The structure of the motives is characterized by a hierarchical system, the presence of a certain system of interacting different motivational trends on the basis of the leading socially significant and have become valuable for the individual motives. Regarding the mechanism of action of motives, they are now not directly arise on the basis of deliberately постановленной goals and consciously accepted intentions. It is in motivational sphere, as believed L.I. Bozovic, is the main tumor transitional age. With the motivational sphere is closely connected moral development of the student who provides substantial changes it is a transitional age.
Thus, the features of childhood and adolescence determine the ways of development of self in these age periods.