Modern pedagogy increasingly drawn to the adolescent with a subject of educational activity as an individual aspiring to self-determination and self-realization. The problem of effective formation and development of communicative skills of personality updated modern social and economic conditions. In this connection it is necessary to answer the questions: what is a teenager as an integral personality? What structures determine its subjective position? What qualities should it develop?
Personality as a «content generalization» of the highest level (В.В.Давыдов). Personality - psychic, spiritual essence of a person serving a variety of generalized systems of qualities:
set of socially relevant properties of the person;
a system of relations to the world and the world to himself and with himself;
system activities, social roles, a set of behavioral acts;
awareness of the world and ourselves in it;
set of abilities, creative abilities;
a set of reactions to external conditions, etc.
All this forms the content generalization of «personality».
Thus, in personality traits are combined hereditary (biological) and purchased life (social) components. Their ratio in the structure of personality, there are four hierarchical level substructure, with the following conventional names (К.К.Платонов 1984).
) Level temperament includes quality, most due to heredity; they are connected with the individual features of the human nervous system.
) Level features of mental processes form the quality characterizing the individual character of sensations, perceptions, imagination, attention, memory, thinking, feelings, and will. Thinking logical operations, called ways of mental actions (the COURT).
Level of personality experience. This includes qualities such as knowledge, skills, habits. They distinguish those which are formed in the process of study of school educational disciplines - ZUN, and those that are purchased in labour, practical activity of the PSD (the sphere of effective practical).
) Level orientation of the individual integrates social content quality, defining attitude to the world, our employees directing and regulating the psychological basis of his conduct: interests, views, beliefs, attitudes, values, ethical principles and ideology. Orientation (together with the needs and self-concept) form the basis of самоуправляющего mechanism personality (MSA).
Morally-ethical and aesthetic views and properties of the person together with the complex of corresponding ZUN representing the fields of aesthetic and moral qualities (SEN).
Experience level and the level of orientation are formed in the process of human life, and are determined by the socio-pedagogical influence. Tourist-study of local lore activity that attracts children in their specifics and broader opportunity for the manifestations of nature, development of abilities, realization of positive needs and self-determination, organized pedagogically appropriate is an effective way of formation and development of communicative skills of students. Acquired children experience cognitive, creative, performance and experience emotional values relations is the basis for formation of positive orientation: interests, views, beliefs, attitudes, values, ethical principles and ideology.
Management and regulation of any processes, including pedagogical, based on the principle of feedback: the subject of control (in this case, the teacher sends the command to the contractor (object management pupil) and shall obtain information on the performance. Without such feedback impossible to achieve a further correction and planning solutions, to achieve the objectives of the activity.
The person in relation to its activities is the object and the subject of control; meeting on a pit, he decides to give himself a command, bypasses or her jumps, while still controlling his actions. Such a combination of functions of the object and the subject of management is called self-government.
Man is perfect and self-adjusting system. The level of self - government is one of the main characteristics of personal development.
Needs is a fundamental properties of the individual expressing his need and which are the source of psychic powers and activity of the person.
Needs can be divided into:
. material (food, clothing, housing), spiritual (in knowledge, aesthetic pleasure);
. physiological and social communication, work, social activities).
Orientation is a set of stable and relatively independent of the situations motives focusing the actions and deeds of a person.
Interests - intelligent form of direction, serving as a driving force action of the personality.
Cognitive interest - desire to study, knowledge of the object.
Social interest as the basis of social actions of individuals or social groups related to the objective conditions of their existence.
Conviction, opinion - subjective relationship of the individual to the environment and our actions connected with deep and well-founded confidence in the truth of knowledge, principles and ideals that guided.
Social attitudes - readiness, a predisposition to certain socially accepted ways of behavior.
Value orientation - orientation of the consciousness and behaviour of the public, material and spiritual values, preferential treatment to some of them.
Worldview - regulated system of the views and beliefs of the individual.
The self-concept of personality is stable, more or less perceived and experienced by a system of representations of the personality itself, on which it builds its behavior.
I-the concept is mainly determines the essential characteristic of process of self-regulation personality, unemployment claims, i.e. the idea of the «designated» among the people she deserves.
Not less important in the process of formation and development communication students is the sphere of aesthetic and moral qualities of a person. This is especially true in tourist activity. The last decades of the theory and practice of teaching little appealed to the spiritual, humanitarian development of the personality, to the formation of aesthetic and moral qualities. These qualities are largely determined by the emotional basis.
Our emotions reflect the surrounding world in the form of direct biased experience the sense of life phenomena and situations. They are inseparably linked with the most important qualities of a personality of its moral content, nature motivational sphere, aesthetic and moral values, attitude. Aesthetic and moral norms, concepts are social origin formed in the historical practice of the person, and are reflected in the spiritual culture of mankind, art, literature. Global challenges the moral and aesthetic education in institutions of additional education and spiritual development of personality in the process of development of various kinds of art, introduction to the culture of his people and the peoples of the world.
Aesthetic education is the education of a sense of beauty, ability to see and understand the beauty in the surrounding life. The most important form - introduction to the different kinds of art: literature, music, fine arts, dance, theatre, cinema.
Education of the moral qualities of a person is based on the understanding and development of moral values that make up modern human moral. These values are freedom, democracy, dignity, honor, responsibility, conscience, shame, love, kindness, environmental culture, the cosmic consciousness, faith, will and virtue.
Effective formation and development of communicative skills of students, it is impossible without existing effectively practical sphere of personality (PSD). It represents a set of socially necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, character and other qualities that ensure the success of the practical (labour, social, artistic and applied) human activities.
The ways are thinking, called ways of mental actions (the COURT).
Thinking represents the processes person of knowledge objects and phenomena of the surrounding world and their relations, solving vital tasks, search of the unknown, of foreseeing the future. Thinking is a process of consciousness, processing brain stored in the knowledge and information obtained and the review of administrative decisions, of creativity, of new knowledge. ЗУНы - stored in the memory of the emotional and symbolic images and their links are the basis, the means of thinking.
On the school stage of development of the personality level, the COURT determines the so-called «trainability» of a teenager, i.e. its ability to assimilate knowledge, training material, ability to apply an individual system of knowledge, the ability to solve theoretical and practical problems.
Of all these blocks qualities of the personality can be divided into those which are mainly formed as a result of socio-pedagogical impact and those that result from genetically.
The first includes needs, self-concept, experience, focus.
To the second temperament, ability, character, mental processes.
Such division allows you to specify the character of any of pedagogical influence.
Thus, the processes of formation and development of communicative skills of students makes the system самоуправляющих mechanisms of personality consists of three integral quality:
needs - cognitive, self-determination, self-assertion, self-education, self-education, self-improvement;
orientation - shaped interests, views, social attitudes, values, beliefs, moral and ethical principles, ideology, experience emotional values relations, experience cognitive, Executive, creative activity;
I-vision - I can, I can, I know I do, I'm in control, I am the image. The most important characteristic of the process of self-regulation, self-determination of personality, its level of claims is determined by self-concept.