The object of our research is creative thinking. Although it has long been used in the psychological literature, its content is still controversial. In modern psychology there are many approaches to the definition of creative thinking.
Creativity is usually defined as activities, generating something new. This creative, productive activities is the definition of creativity in General. Thinking that creates reality, knowledge, an ideal image as something fundamentally distinct from the object (although this image is a reflection of the subject)can be called creative thinking .
In " the explanatory dictionary of the Russian language Sergey I. Ozhegov defines a creativity ? this is according to the plan of creation of new cultural and material values. Central here is the word «new». Creative thinking ? it's the thinking of the Creator, it is the psychic activity on creation of qualitatively new, different uniqueness, originality .
In the modern dictionary on psychology of creativity is the activity, activity of the subject, the result, the result of which is a reproduction, re-creation of material and spiritual values, products, works of literature, painting, music and other arts, culture, architecture, science .
E. Fromm understands under the creative thinking ability to wonder and learn, the ability to find solutions in non-standard situations, the focus on opening new and propensity to deeply understand the experience .
Other authors of creative thinking is understood as the process of feeling difficulties, problems, missing elements, bias in something; to build guesses and formulation of hypotheses relating to these shortcomings, evaluation and testing of these conjectures and hypotheses; possibility of review and verification and, finally, generalization of results» . Creative thinking implies paradoxical solutions, search for the opposite, metaphoric .
R. O. Gut understands creative thinking (the process of creation) as productive human activity, generating a non-trivial (qualitatively new, non-obvious) result .
G. S. Altshuller, R. B. Shapiro under the creative thinking understand productive human activity designed to achieve new results by resolution of some contradictions .
E. L. Yakovleva understands творческостью implementation of man's own personality, understood as the uniqueness of each individual; not necessarily create any product .
S. D. Smirnov notes that the separation of thinking on productive (creative) and reproductive (reproduction) is quite conditional. In any act of the thinking there is a creative, generating the part connected with the generation of hypotheses, and the Executive part, associated with their implementation and verification. These two above mentioned components can be allocated not only in thought, but in any learning process. "Creative", or "productive", thinking is sustainable phrase to denote mental acts, where the generating, generative party is like a higher relative weights to dominate the Executive and control parts of its significance. By S. D. Smirnov, "творческость" is not some special characteristic of cognitive processes, and represents one of the most profound personality characteristics. Creative thinking is the prerogative of the free, capable to develop the personality. Or rather even say that creativity is a way to "personal" existence, in contrast обезличенному energy .
Exploring the nature of creativity, scientists proposed to call the ability of the corresponding creative activity, creativity (from the English. creativity - creativity). According to philosophers, creativity is the essence of belonging at the same time as the subject itself and the outside world. Creativity ? this integrative ability, вбирающая in the whole system of interrelated abilities elements. For example, creative abilities are the imagination, associative, fantasy, daydreaming .
Creativity is the ability to know the new in Genesis, creation of new creative product; depends on the personality of the Creator; the specific feature of the creative process, product and personality is their originality, creative products can be very different in nature: problems in mathematics, the opening of a chemical process, making music, painting or a poem, a new philosophical or religious system of innovation in jurisprudence, fresh solution of social problems and other .
One of the objectives of education ? this development of children's personality, possessing creative thinking. What is this quality? What distinguishes a person from a person, who has creative thinking?
Many researchers have tried to formulate the main quality of any individual possessing the creative thinking that underlies the ability to be creative. For all the diversity of specific language are all talking about the same: a creative person is a free person; and a free person is a person, who can be herself, to hear his "I", by definition, K. Rogers.
In English literature the main quality of a creative personality is often called a sense of self-identity ("The Sense of Personal Identity"). Creative people must appreciate its unique and inimitable (like all others) identity, "not ashamed". After all, any creative act is a form of spiritual "самообнажения"that it is particularly hard to do "in public". The ability to "create" if others refers to the number of professionally important qualities of a creative person .
Among the key characteristics of creativity include intuition, imagination, ingenuity, vision, originality, creativity, tenacity, high self-organization and performance. Person possessing these qualities, finds satisfaction not so much in achieving the goal, as in the process of creative work .
A creative person is the person possessing all the qualities of personality and the desire to create, possessing system and skills necessary for creativity .
G.S. Altshuller, the Creator of the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) and the theory of development of a creative personality (ТРТЛ), proposed six qualities of the person, possessing creative thinking, regardless of occupation:
A worthy goal in life.
The ability to make plans and programmes.
Techniques for solving problems.
The ability to «hold strike»
Additional qualities a person, who has creative thinking are:
Strong search activity and open minded.
Developed the ability to dream and imagine.
Desire and ability to enjoy the process of creativity.
The ability to see the problem.
Really different and infectious critical independent thinking. The lack of stereotypes of thinking.
Courage. The ability to take risks to win. The ability to exert thinking.
Sooner formed a zone of special interests (biology, chess, music, theatre, poetry). The school often is not enough time.
-The ability to do many things at once and nothing to forget.
-A strong sense of justice.
Humor, ability to laugh at oneself.
-Total non-standard thinking and actions. The absence of stamps and conformism.
-Able to tackle global problems, clearly exceeding the strength of the child.
-Excessive self-confidence. High self-esteem. The overall winning attitude .
L. Ya. Dorfman, and the Century Kovalev believe that among the list of characteristics of creative persons captured one, the main contradiction. Absolutely, creative personality contradictory, i.e. potentially witty, combining incompatible: physical energy and the state of peace, the severity and innocence, playfulness and responsibility, imagination and a sense of reality, signs of extroversion and introversion, modesty and pride, lack of stereotypes in the field of sexual roles rebellious spirit and conservatism, openness and sensitivity etc. .
A. Century farmhouse noted the following qualities of a creative person possessing creative thinking:
эмоциально-shaped quality: emotional upsurge in creative situations, imagery, associativity, contemplation and imagination, imagination, dreaminess, romantic, sense of novelty and unusual sensitivity to contradictions, the propensity to creative doubt, the ability to feel an internal struggle, the ability of empathy, знакотворчество, символотворчество;
- initiative, ingenuity, wit, the willingness to devising; uniqueness, originality, originality, uniqueness, assertiveness;
- ability to generate ideas, their production, both individually and in communication with other people, with the text, with the object of cognition;
- uninhibited thoughts, feelings and movements, combined with the ability to withstand the standards of conduct that are in school, in the family, in a different social environment;
insight, the ability to see the familiar to the unfamiliar and Vice versa, overcoming stereotypes, being able to go to another plane or space in solving the problem;
- ability to conduct a dialogue with the studied object, choose the methods of cognition adequate to the object; the ability to determine the structure and structure, find the function and the relation object with similar objects; forecasting of changes in the object, the dynamics of growth or development; - development of new methods of knowledge depending on the properties of the object;
predictability, предсказательность, formulation of hypotheses, designing versions, regularities, formulas, theories; possession нелогическими heuristics: intuition, insight meditation;
the presence of the personal progress of education, different from the educational standards depth, theme, opinion, different from the generally accepted; independence, risk appetite;
presence of experience of realization of the most creative of his abilities in the form of performance and protection of creative works, participate in contests, competitions and others .
So creativity is usually defined as activities, generating something new. This creative, productive activities is the definition of creativity in General. The majority of the authors assumed that creative thinking is manifest in the creation of a certain product (material or thinking, if this is a new, original, that is creative. To date, we can talk about a tradition understanding of creative thinking as the ability reflecting deep property of individuals to create original values, take non-standard decisions, to go beyond the known; as integral properties of the person realizes its creative possibilities.
The main features of the person, who has creative thinking include intuition, imagination, imagination, ingenuity and openness to new, lack of stereotypes, the gift of foresight, originality, creativity, risk-taking, sense of humor, persistence, self-confidence, high self-organization and performance. Person possessing these qualities, finds satisfaction not so much in achieving the goal, as in the process of creation.