Lesson for the prevention of conflicts should be held regularly on the possibility of one-two times a week. «The issues that need to figure out before you start preventing conflicts» will help us to determine the main directions in the work and decide what topics or sections have for this class of primary and which are secondary. Not necessarily carry out planned activities in strict sequence, have to be flexible. For this purpose it is recommended to plan more time per all sorts of surprises.
Given this, we have developed a program for training pupils in non-conflict behaviour.
This program aims to develop and shape of the Junior students resolve conflict situation.
The program pursues the following objectives: to help children to get out of conflict situations; develop a sense of cooperation; to promote respect for others.
The program is designed for 30 exercises that are recommended for every day during recess.
Ski lessons should provide and audit work (i.e. work at their desks)and work «in the circle» , and movement exercises, and the opportunity to work in comfortable positions.
This program includes three stages:
- Indicative (10 games and exercises)
- Reconstruction (14 games and exercises)
- Fixing (6 games and exercises)
In the lobby of the games and exercises worked out the following main aspects in learning unambiguous behavior:
development of a sense of self-esteem;
non-violent conflict resolution;
At classes when choosing games and exercises you need to be careful. If games and exercises take an undesirable turn, or, for example, for whatever reason, can not give the desired results should be immediately terminated. This can occur during exercise, when the group is a dynamic process, in which individual children may be offended, isolated, to make aggressive attacks.
At work it is important to preserve order in which the games and exercises designed to introduce participants and self-revelation, would be concentrated in the first few sessions ( i.e. on 1 stage), and exercises directed to forming and development of cooperation, non-violent conflict resolution closer to the middle of the cycle ( stage 2 of the program).
Consider the most successful fragments of our work.
Stage 1-indicative-had the following tasks:
- Reduction of emotional tension;
- Creation of «+» of mood and atmosphere adoption of each;
- Learn to control your feelings and resolve the conflict.
These tasks we solved with the help of games and exercises.
Objective: fostering respect and tolerance for each other.
Game: Remembering names in motion».
Instruction: All stand in a circle, called his name, making any move. Then everything goes in a circle: a student standing near, represents the first of the first, repeating his movement, then themselves and making any move.
Then there is the analysis of the exercise-children respond to several questions:
What feelings did you have?
Difficult or easy was the task?
It was hard to remember movement?
Therefore, when conducting this game, children learn to respect each other, watching every student to memorize movement.
And the game «If I was an animal...», «Web», «name tags», «Three changes in clothing», «Fruit salad», «balloon», «Kraski», «the Storm,» directed on respect to each other, possession of his senses.
In step 2, the following problems were solved:
- To develop feelings of self-respect, respect for others;
- Be able to listen and expressed itself;
Fostering cooperation in the class.
At this stage were conducted 14 games and exercises on the following topics:
- «Development of self-respect and respect for others».
«The ability to listen and expressed itself».
- «The perception of the senses».
Topic : «the Ability to listen and expressed itself»
Game : Listen good and listen to the bad»
Goal : to educate the ability to listen to others.
Preparation: Prepare a short role-play. Class watches. One player begins to tell the story, second is listening in the beginning very bad. After a few minutes, interrupt and start with the difference that the listener now is all attention: his gaze riveted to the narrator, the person expresses participation; from time to time he asks probing questions. Then the teacher asks a question: «On what grounds do you notice that you bad (or closely, listen to?»
How did you feel in the role?
This is important or not? Why?
In stage 2 were included such activities as «Guess»: «Who am I?» «Good dwarf» and many others which are very effective and have the results.
At stage 3 the following tasks:
- Be able to analyze the situation inside and outside the school;
- To learn to understand and evaluate their own behaviour in conflict situations;
- To develop methods of non-violent conflict resolution.
At this stage were conducted 6 games and exercises on the following topics:
.«Approaches to conflicts».
.«Non-violent conflict resolution».
Subject: « Non-violent resolution of conflicts.
Exercise: « Conflicts in the class».
The purpose of the activity: the search for solutions to the characteristic conflicts.
Preparation: the Class is divided into small group. The teacher describes the conflict situation, a small group to discuss it. To formulate the essence of the conflict is given 3 minutes.
Answers to the question of discussion. After that we will offer groups come up with the optimum solution. (3 minutes)
Ask the students what they have found.
Also there was a homeroom on the theme «the Conflicts in our lives.»
Goal: 1) familiarize the rules of conflict prevention;
) development of skills of moral self-consciousness;
) increasing the cohesion of the class.
Equipment: poster, logo, colored squares for reflection rope.
Teacher: children, разделитесь, please, into two groups: one of the boys, and the other girls. Now we will play a simple game of tug of war. (Play).
Team won the boys. Thank you. Sit down. Do you think this game could be a clash?
Disciple: Yes. Boys are stronger. Judge подсудил. Disturb the audience. Some pulled hard, while others stayed for the species.
Teacher: Yes, this situation is similar to the conflict. And what is necessary for the emergence of conflict?
Disciples: For the emergence of conflict requires the presence of at least two people and is the subject of the dispute.
Teacher: And now take another situation. (Conducted an exercise in the centre of the group: two volunteers show exercise «Yes-no» on the example of the situation with manned by the class).
Disciple: Yes, conflict, because there are two people and the subject of the dispute - duty.
At the end of this tutorial we asked this question:
Do you think the discussion of this topic useful, and will change whether it is your behavior in conflict situations?
As a result, we learned that 72% of students believe the discussion on the Conflict in our lives»is a useful and change their behavior in conflict situations in a good way.
% of students answered this question «no» and believe that their behavior in conflict situations will not change and remains things were. 12% of students doubted answer, because they believe that sometimes their behavior may change in conflict situations in a good way.
Thus we came to the conclusion that our work was not in vain that the children will understand-avoid conflict may each and every situation possible. In the second Chapter we carried out experimental-practical work on developing students ways of conflict-free behavior, i.e. analysed the situations in the classroom and among schoolchildren and defined the program for training pupils in non-conflict behaviour.
Based on these we for elementary school teachers give some guidance:
lessons are based on the material, close and understandable to children associated with actual situations; it allows them to compare their behavior with the behavior of their peers, and allow you to Express and understand yourself;
creative approach to the solution of the conflict situation on the classroom contributes to the development of the search activity of the students;
during all period of the games and exercises should be in the same room;
the room should be relatively spacious;
at the initial stage it is better to give more exercises that are performed in pairs; it makes it easier to involve the whole group in active work;
when you exercise in pairs, preferably frequent change of partners, thereby develops respect for others;
material is prepared in advance and is at hand;