In the psychological and pedagogical works are the different ways of formation of self-esteem in children.
According to CHERNYSHOVA Bozovic, correct formation of self-esteem is one of the most important factors in the development of the personality of the child. Steady self-esteem is influenced by the assessment by others (adults and children), as well as their own activities of the child and its own assessment of its results.
If the child can't analyze their activities and assessment of the others varies in a negative direction, arise acute affective experience. For example, if in the family of the child has formed a positive self-esteem and related claims, and after that in the kindergarten or school, he was faced with a negative rating, there are a lot of negative forms of behaviour (resentment, stubbornness, драчливость etc). At long preservation of such a situation, these negative forms of behaviour are fixed and become resistant qualities of the individual. L.I. Bozovic notes that the negative qualities of personality occur in response to the need for the child to avoid severe affective experiences associated with the loss of confidence to himself.
Formation of self-esteem due to the vigorous actions of the child, with introspection and self-control. Games, activities, communication continually draw his attention to himself, put it in a situation where he should treat himself - assess their ability to do something, to abide by certain requirements and regulations of the exercise of those qualities of personality.
Allow influence on the formation of self-assessment by two factors: the attitude of others and the realization by the child of the peculiarities of its activities, its progress and results. And this awareness does not appear automatically: parents and teachers need to teach a child to see and understand, study coordinate their actions with other people coordinate their desires with the wishes and needs of others.
In each age on the formation of self-assessment mainly affects the activities in this age is the leading.
At the initial stages of development the child estimates mainly their physical qualities and capabilities («I am big», «I am strong»), then being understood and assessed practical skills, actions, moral qualities. Self-esteem begins to act as an important regulator of human behavior, activity in the teaching, work, communication, self-education.
Up to seven years baby arrives in accordance with relevant it currently experiences. His desires and expression of these desires and behaviour (i.e. internal and external) are inseparable whole. The behaviour of the children in these groups can be roughly described scheme: «he wanted to do.» Naivety and spontaneity indicate that outwardly child is the same as «inside», its behavior is clear and easy to «read» people. The loss of spontaneity and naivety in the behavior of the senior preschool means integrating into his actions some intelligent moment, which is wedged between this experience and the influence of the child. His behavior becomes conscious and can be described by a different schema: «wanted - realized - made». Awareness is included in all spheres of life of the older preschoolers: he becomes aware of him everybody and their attitude to them and to yourself, your individual experience, the results of their activities etc.
One of the important achievements of the senior preschool age is the awareness of their social «I», formation of the internal social position. In the early periods of development children are not aware of the fact, what place they occupy in life. Therefore, a conscious desire to change them is missing. If the emerging new needs of the children of these ages, are not being implemented in the framework of the lifestyle they lead, it causes unconscious protest and resistance.
In the preschool age child for the first time aware of the discrepancy between what position he occupies among other people, and what are its real possibilities and desires. Appears clearly expressed a desire to take a new more «adult» position in life and perform new, important not only for himself but also for other people activities. The child drops out of the ordinary life and переменяемой to him educational system loses interest in preschool activities. In conditions of General school education and foremost, there is the desire of children to the social status of the student to the teachings as a new socially significant activity (In school - large, and in a kindergarten - only kids»), as well as in the desire to perform certain tasks adults, take on some of their duties, be helpers in the family.
The emergence of such aspiration is prepared by the whole course of the mental development of children and occurs at that level, when it becomes available awareness itself not only as an actor but also as subjects in the system of human relations. If the transition to a new social situation and new activities in a timely manner does not occur, then the child arises a feeling of dissatisfaction.
The child becomes aware of his place among other people, he formed an internal social position and the pursuit of its relevant needs a new social role. The child becomes aware of, and summarize the experiences, formed a stable self-esteem and the corresponding attitude to the success and failure in activity (one peculiar desire for success and high achievements, and for others it is most important to avoid failures and unpleasant experiences).
Positive self-esteem is based on self-respect, feeling of self-worth and positive attitude towards everything that is happening in the view of himself. A negative self-esteem expresses the rejection, self-denial, a negative attitude to his personality.
In the preschool age, there are the beginnings of reflection - ability to analyze their activities and to correlate their opinions, feelings and actions with the opinions and views of others, so the self-esteem of children of senior preschool age becomes more realistic, in familiar situations and usual activities approaching adequate. The unfamiliar situation and unusual activities of their self-esteem overstatement.
Low self-esteem in children of preschool age is considered as a deviation in the development of personality.
Features of behavior of children of preschool age with a different type of self-esteem.
Children with inadequately high self-esteem are very mobile, unrestrained, quickly switch from one activity to another, often lead up begun up to the end. They tend not to analyze the results of their actions and deeds, try to solve any, including very complex task «immediately». They are not aware of their failures. These children tend to demonstrative and dominance. They tend to be always on mind advertise their knowledge and skills, to try to stand out from other guys, draw attention to themselves. If they can not provide a full account the adult successes in the activity, then do it, breaking the rules of conduct. In the classroom, for example, they can shout with designated, comment out loud actions of the teacher, wriggle or etc.
It is, as a rule, attractive children. They tend to lead, but in a peer group may not be accepted, as directed, mainly, «ourselves» and are not inclined to cooperate.
To the praise of tutor children with inadequately high self-esteem are as something for granted. Its absence can cause bewilderment, anxiety, hurt, sometimes irritation and tears. The censure they react differently. Some children ignore the criticism in his address, others respond to them increased emotionality (cry, the tears, the hurt to the teacher). Some kids alike are attracted to, and praise and blame, the main thing is for them to be in the center of attention of an adult.
Children with inadequately high self-esteem are insensitive to failure, they have the desire to succeed and a high level of claims.
Children with self-esteem tend to analyze the results of their activities, trying to find the cause of the errors. They are self-confident, active, balanced, quickly switch from one activity to another, persistent in achieving the goal. Seek to cooperate, to help others, sociable and friendly. In a situation of failure are trying to find out the reason and choose task somewhat lesser complexity (but not easy). Success in activity stimulates their desire to try a more challenging task. These children have the desire to succeed.
Children with low self-esteem indecisive, малообщительны, mistrustful, silent, unsure of movement. They are very sensitive, ready to burst into tears at any moment, not willing to cooperate and not able to fend for themselves. These children are worrying, insecure, it is difficult to be included in the activities. They pre refuse solutions to the problems that seems complex, but emotional support adult easily cope with them. A child with low self-esteem seems to be slow. He did not break to perform the job, fearing that did not understand what to do and perform all wrong; tries to guess pleased with him whether an adult. The more important is the activity, the more difficult it is to cope with it. So, in the lessons of these children show significantly worse results than in ordinary days.
In the Junior school age is the leading educational activity; it is from its course and depends to a decisive extent, the formation of a child's self-assessment, it is directly related to its progress, successes in the doctrine. The doctrine, as a leading activity is beginning to correct formation of the personality literally from the first months of joining a child in school. Moreover, psychological studies show that the self-assessment of Junior schoolchildren are still far from independent, over her weigh evaluation of others, primarily the teacher's assessments. How assesses a child, is a copy, almost literal cast assessments made by the teacher. The good students is generally high, often high self-esteem, weak - low, mostly underestimated. However lagging pupils not easily reconciled with low evaluations of their activities and personal qualities - conflict situations arise, intensifying emotional tension, excitement and confusion of the child. The weak pupils gradually begins to develop self-doubt, anxiety, shyness, they do not feel themselves among classmates, wary of adults.
Other complex personal qualities beginning to emerge, in connection with high self-esteem, strong students. They are distinguished by their self-confidence, often turning into overconfidence, a habit of being the first exemplary.
And underestimation, and a revaluation of its forces and capabilities - the phenomenon is far from harmless for the student. The habit to a particular location in a cool collective - «weak», «medium» and «strong», giving tone in school - gradually leaves an imprint on all the sides of life of the child. In the social life of the class on the Central role of the claim honors, weak pupils get in the best case, only the role of performers. And all the relations of children also start and is formed under the influence of this already «legalised» dividing the class according to the results of the training activities. «Stars», to which most are drawn peers, in primary school are those guys whose diaries is dominated by five. Only later, during adolescence, evaluation and self-learners will change their base themselves change. Guys will start to appreciate the quality of a good comrade, and courage, and skill, and passion for something, and depth of interest. In the Junior same school age on the first place among the grounds for self-assessment, as a rule, there are educational performance and behavior of the child teacher. In research under the guidance of V.V. Davydov, special attention was paid to studying of ways of development of self. Thus, it was found that learning, mastery learning activities and all its elements, becomes the subject of a special assimilation, creates favourable conditions for the formation of self-assessment in the Junior school age.
Thus, development of self-consciousness in children is manifested in the fact that students had been gradually increasing severity, exactingness.