There are a few concepts which different points of view are considered the features of formation of self-esteem in Teens. In the concept of D. B. Elkonin adolescence, as every new period is associated with tumors that arise from the leading activity of the preceding period. By the end of primary school age in the child having the leading activities of the previous period. By the end of primary school age child, new opportunities have arisen, but he still does not know what it represents. The question «What I am?» can only be found by collision with reality. Features of development of the adolescent in this age appear in any of the following symptoms: there are difficulties in the relations with older: negativism, stubbornness, indifference to assess the progress dropping out of school, because the main thing for a child is now out of school; the urge to peer companies (searching for a friend search for someone who can understand you); the child begins to keep a diary.
All of the above testifies to address child's self. All of the symptoms seen the question «Who am I?». Many authors make these symptoms to the beginning of puberty. However, as stressed by D. B. Эльконин, changes arise and begin to realize the first psychologically as a result of development of educational activity and only supported physical changes. It makes a turn on an even more intimate.
Comparing himself with adults, teen concludes that between him and the adults there is no difference. He begins to demand from others, so it is no longer considered a child, he realizes that has rights. Central neoplasm of this age - emergence of view of himself as «not a baby»; teenager begins to feel like an adult, aspires to be and be deemed to be an adult, he rejects his belonging to the children, but he has no feeling of genuine, full adulthood, but there is great need in recognition of his adulthood others.
The activities of the communication is extremely important for the formation of personality in the full sense of the word. In this activity is formed self-consciousness. The main tumor that age - social consciousness transferred inside. The PS Выготскому, this is self-consciousness. Consciousness means sharing knowledge. This knowledge in the system of relations. And consciousness is public knowledge is transferred into an inner plane of thinking.
Controlling his behavior, projecting it on the basis of moral norms is the personality. By D. B. Эльконину, all neoplasms of adolescence, as in a drop of water, recognized for adolescent girl: look at these relations in order to see the whole system of moral norms learned person.
Later, in research Д.И. Фельдштейна was deployed concept of the two main types of actual position of the child in relation to society, conventionally called them «I in society» and «me and the society». The first of them are very actively deployed in the period of early childhood, primary school and high school age, when the updated subject - practical activities.
The main and almost the only effective means of influence on the personality of the teenager, according to the position taken by the Д.И. Фельдштейном from 60-ies. Is a specially formatted and socially approved a group activity. This «socially useful» or «просоциальная» activity is essentially a pedagogically organized equivalent of the leading activity of the adolescent stage of development, defined as «socially relevant». According to the concept Д.И. Фельдштейна, the first stage of adolescence (10 - 11 years) - is the period of searching teenager acceptable forms of this activity, the second stage (12 - 13 years) - period of its deployment and the third stage (14 - 15 years) - period of his awareness of social приобретенности, an active search of ways and forms of development of the means to implement it.
Д.И. Feldstein found that «fourteen teen more interested in self-esteem and acceptance by the other», public recognition. The easiest teenager can achieve this in the adolescent or the teenagers and the youth group. Such groups may be natural, and can be specially pedagogically organized.
Describing the various stages of adolescence ontogenesis, Д.И. Feldstein notes that the vast majority of children in the first stage (10 - 11 years) ideals were specific in nature, and only a small number of examinees have generic ideals. These children of a particular characteristic criticality in self-esteem. About 34% of boys and 26% of girls reported when examining a completely negative response, about 70% of the test, though, and found himself the positive traits, but found the predominance of negative. Already at this time the need of self-esteem, but at the same time, the inability to evaluate themselves) is very acute.
On the second stage the teen age (12 - 13 years) specific ideal named already 68% of subjects to 30% found the generalized ideal. At this stage, along with the General acceptance of self» is saved and situational attitude towards yourself, and often negative and dependent on relationships with others, first of all peers. General positive attitude is connected with the actualization of the need for self-esteem, worsening the situation of discontent.
The third stage of adolescence (14 - 15 years) is characterized by the predominance of (81%) of the generalized ideal, resulting from the combination of the perfect features images of people. In this period, it becomes the «operational self-esteem', defining the attitude of the teenager to myself «here and now», and based on comparing yourself as a personality and behavior with specific norms, acting as a «perfect shape» yourself and your behavior.
A crucial provision, as proposed and justified in the works Д.И. Фельдштейна, was the assertion that «...a teenager is solved not just a problem of certain classes of «place» in society, but also the problem of relations in the society, the definitions of themselves in society and through the society, i.e. the task of personal self-determination, decision-active position regarding the socio-cultural values and thereby determine the meaning of his existence». So it is obvious that adolescence most сенситивен to the absorption of socially significant values, because it provides the transformation of self-determination at the level of «what am I?» in self-determination in society, the level of awareness of socially oriented values and motives.
Подростничество, notes R.S. Nemov, has many characteristic for this age contradictions and conflicts. On the one hand, the level of intellectual development of adolescents, they demonstrate in solving various tasks related to school subjects, encourages adults to discuss with them rather serious problems, even the teenagers actively looking for it. On the other hand, discussing problems, especially those pertaining to the future profession, ethics, responsible attitude to their duties, reveals amazing immaturity of these outwardly looking almost a grown-up people. Occurs psychological and pedagogical dilemma, a permit which can only be experienced adult: as referring to a teenager seriously, i.e. an adult, however, treat him like a child, who is constantly in need of help and support, but outwardly thus such a «children's» treatment not detect.
In the period between 12 and 14 years to describe yourself and other people, teenagers unlike the younger age begin to use less categorical judgments, including in самоописание the word «sometimes», «almost», «I think» and others, suggest that the transition to the position of the evaluation of relativism, about their understanding of the ambiguities, the variability and diversity of personality manifestations of man.
In middle school instead of one teacher appears several new teachers, who are usually very different style of behavior and manner of communication, as well as methods of practice. Different teachers have different requirements for teenagers that makes them individually adapt to each new teacher. In adolescence appears differential treatment to different teachers: some love, no other third are indifferent. Acquire new criteria of evaluation of the personality and activity of adults. On the one hand, it creates the opportunity for a more precise and accurate assessments of people by comparing them with each other, and on the other hand, gives rise to certain difficulties arising from the inability of adolescents perceive adult, give him the right assessment.
Teenagers are more valued knowledgeable teachers, strict, but fair, which take kindly to the children know how interesting and clear to explain the material, put a fair assessment, not divide the class into Pets and unloved. Especially highly valued teenager erudition teachers, as well as its ability to properly build a relationship with the students.
In the age of from ten to fifteen years the motives of activity of a teenager in his ideals and interests are significant changes. In the initial period of this age (10 to 11 years) many adolescents (about one third) give yourself a mainly negative personality characteristics. Such a conduct is saved and later, at the age of 12 to 13 years. However, here it is accompanied already some positive changes in self perception, in particular the growth of self-esteem and higher evaluation of oneself as a personality.
As they grow older initially global negative self-esteem of adolescents become more differentiated, characterizing the behavior in certain social situations, and then and private actions.
In the development of reflection, i.e. the ability awareness of teenagers own advantages and disadvantages, the trend is as if the opposite. In the initial period of подростничества children are realized mainly only their individual actions in certain situations, then traits and, finally, global personal characteristics.
Self-assessment occurs and is formed only in the process of communication teenager with other people. Interacting with others, teen constantly compare yourself with others and knows himself on the basis of this comparison. Originally self-esteem is erratic, then it becomes more and more stable. In this regard, teen gradually freed from the direct effects of the situation is becoming more and more independent.
Teen all the more keenly, compared with younger children, refers to the opinion of the team. He valued this opinion, respect it, guided by it. If a Junior student meets the praise of the teacher, the adolescent is more related to the social evaluation. He sicker and sharper than experiencing disapproval of the collective than disapproval of the teacher. Therefore very important to have in class a healthy public opinion and to be able to rely on him. The teenager does not forgive insults in front of their peers or others. So should not reproach, teach, shame teenager when comrades. This may cause a sharp conflict.
Thus, self-esteem has a huge impact on self-education of the teenager. Evaluating its features and capabilities compared with other teenagers can create a program of self-education. Most brightly it is shown in their ideals. It is the ideal serves as a program of self-education of the teenager. The ideal choice depends on the nature of self-esteem. If self-esteem is adequate, then the chosen ideal promotes formation of such qualities, as high demand, self-critical, self-reliance, perseverance, and if self-esteem is inadequate, it may form such qualities as insecurity or excessive self-confidence, not to be critical and other